• Molluscum Contagiosum

    Definition

    Molluscum contagiosum is an infection of the skin.

    Causes

    Molluscum contagiosum is caused by the molluscum virus. It can start after you come in contact with the virus. You may come in contact with the virus by skin to skin contact with an infected person. The virus can also pass through shared items like towels or wrestling mats.
    The virus can also spread from one part of a person's body to another area.

    Risk Factors

    Skin to skin contact with an infected person is the main risk factor. Other risk factors include:
    • Indirect contact with an infected person through items such as wrestling mats or by sharing towels or clothing
    • Sexual contact with an infected person
    • Weakened immune system (eg, HIV/AIDS )
    • Having other skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis
    • Living in a humid climate

    Symptoms

    Skin lesions are the main symptom. Similar lesions may be caused by other health conditions. It is important that you see your doctor to determine the cause.
    Molluscum Contagiosum
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    Molluscum contagiosum skin lesions usually have the following characteristics:
    • Small, dome-shaped bumps with dimpling in center
    • Painless, but may be itchy or tender
    • Appear translucent, pearly or flesh-colored at first then may turn gray and drain
    • White or waxy substance in center of lesion
    • Usually multiple lesions in groups
    • Face, trunk, arms, and legs are common sites in children
    • Genitals, abdomen, and inner thigh are common sites in adults
    • Can last from several weeks to several years

    Diagnosis

    Diagnosis is usually made based on the lesion appearance. Sometimes a biopsy will be taken. A biopsy is the removal of a small sample of the area. The sample will be looked at under a microscope.
    In some cases, your doctor may refer you to a doctor that specializes in skin conditions.

    Treatment

    Molluscum Contagiosum usually resolves within six months to two years. For people with HIV, the lesions usually persist and spread indefinitely. Your doctor may recommend the removal of some lesions to prevent the spread of the infection or to avoid infecting others.
    Treatment options include the following:

    Surgical Removal

    The lesions can be removed by scraping them off the surface of the skin.

    Chemical Treatment

    Chemicals may be used to remove the lesions. Common chemical options include:
    • Salicilic acid
    • Podophyllin
    • Cantharidin
    • Silver nitrate
    • Trichloracetic acid

    Cryotherapy

    This method uses cold to freeze the lesions off of the skin. Liquid nitrogen may be used for this treatment.

    Medical Treatment

    A retinoid or imiquimod cream may be used separately or in combination. These creams gradually remove the lesions.

    Prevention

    This disease is very contagious. Take the following measures to reduce your risk of exposure to the virus:
    • Avoid contact with an infected person. Do not share towels and clothing.
    • Avoid sexual contact with an infected person..
    If you have the disease, reduce the risk of spread by:
    • Not touching the lesions
    • Not scratching
    • Washing your hands promptly if they do come in contact with the lesions

    RESOURCES

    American Academy of Dermatology http://www/aad.org/

    The American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org/

    American Social Health Association http://www.ashastd.org/

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Dermatology Association http://www.dermatology.ca/

    Dermatologists.ca http://www.dermatologists.ca/

    References

    American Academy of Dermatology. Molluscum contagiosum. American Academy of Dermatology website. Available at: http://www.aad.org/public/Publications/pamphlets/MolluscumContagiosum.htm . Accessed October 7, 2012.

    American Family Physician. Molluscum contagiosum and warts. American Family Physician website. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030315/1233.html . Accessed October 7, 2012.

    Molluscum contagiosum: questions & answers. American Social Health Association website. Available at: http://www.ashastd.org/std-sti/molluscum-contagiosum.html . Accessed October 7, 2012.

    Dohil MA, Lin P, Lee J, Lucky AW, Paller AS, Eichenfield LF. The epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum in children. J Am Acad Dermatol . 2006;54(1):47-54.

    Molluscum contagiosum. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated April 24, 2012. Accessed October 7, 2012.

    Hanson D. Diven DG. Molluscum contagiosum. Dermatology Online Journal. Available at: http://www.dermatology.cdlib.org/92/reviews/molluscum/diven.html . Accessed October 7, 2012.

    Theos AU, Cummins R, Silverberg NB, Paller AS. Effectiveness of imiquimod cream 5% for treating childhood molluscum contagiosum in a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. Cutis . 2004;74(2):134-138,141-142.

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