• The Avian Flu Vaccine

    DS Modern Medicine 76 The bird (or avian) flu is a respiratory infection caused by the H5N1 virus. The virus is common among wild birds and usually does not cause any symptoms. But, it can be deadly in domesticated poultry, like chicken and turkeys.
    While the virus rarely infects people, in 1997, there was an H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong—18 people became ill and six died. Since then, the bird flu has infected people in over 15 countries in Asia, Europe, the Near East, the Pacific, and Africa. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 562 confirmed cases and 329 deaths occurred between 2003-2011. People at the greatest risk are those who have direct contact with sick or dead birds or with surfaces contaminated by the virus. There have been a few cases, though, where the virus spread between people.
    Health officials and researchers are concerned that the virus could reach new areas, especially with H5N1 infecting migratory birds. An even greater threat is that the virus could mutate into a more contagious form, with the ability to spread more easily from birds to people and between people.

    What’s the Current Status of the H5N1 Vaccine?

    Antibodies are the body’s natural defense against infection. Vaccines work by triggering the body to make specific antibodies to a particular virus. If a person who has been vaccinated becomes infected with the virus, the antibodies quickly destroy it.
    Research studies in humans began in 2005 to evaluate vaccines to prevent avian flu. In 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first US vaccine to protect against a strain of the virus. The vaccine is intended for people aged 18-64 who have an increased risk of exposure to H5N1. Adults receive a series of two shots that are given one month apart. The vaccine, though, is not available to the general public. The US government purchased it for the Strategic National Stockpile, where large supplies of medicines are stored in case of a national emergency.

    What Are the Other Options in Case of an Outbreak?

    While researchers work toward protecting the population from H5N1, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk of becoming sick. For example, avoiding direct and indirect contact with wild and domestic birds and making sure all poultry foods are thoroughly cooked are just two ways you can lower your chance of contracting the virus.
    In addition, medicines used to treat and prevent the seasonal flu may be effective against avian flu. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is currently recommended for the treatment and prevention of H5N1, but there have been some cases where the virus was resistant to this medicine.

    RESOURCES

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/

    Flu.gov http://www.flu.gov/

    World Health Organization (WHO) http://www.who.int/en/

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Lung Association http://www.lung.ca/home-accueil%5Fe.php/

    Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/

    References

    Avian influenza. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated July 2009. Accessed July 27, 2009.

    Avian influenza. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated January 2009. Accessed December 1, 2008.

    Avian influenza. United States Army Public Health Command website. Available at: http://phc.amedd.army.mil/topics/discond/inf/Pages/AvianFlu.aspx. Accessed July 20, 2011.

    Avian influenza. World Health Organization website. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/avian%5Finfluenza/en/. Accessed July 20, 2011.

    Avian influenza virus infections of humans. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm . Updated May 2008. Accessed July 27, 2009.

    BioSante Pharmaceuticals reports 100% protection from H1N1 challenge when using BioVant adjuvanted vaccine. Business Wire website. Available at: http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/?ndmViewId=news%5FviewnewsId=20090817005241newsLang=en . Published August 17, 2009. Accessed August 20, 2009.

    Jewett E. Conference notes. Paper presented at: Avian Influenza Pandemic Conference; December 6, 2005; Lowell, MA. Emergency Management website. Available at: training.fema.gov/.../Avian%20Influenza%20Pandemic%20Conference%20Notes.doc . Accessed July 29, 2009.

    Marieb EN. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3rd ed. Redwood City, CA: Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company; 1995.

    Novartis MF59-adjuvanted vaccine rapidly induces protective antibody levels against diverse strains of avian flu. Norvartis website. Available at: http://www.novartis.com/newsroom/media-releases/en/2008/1252754.shtml . Published September 19, 2009. Accessed August 20, 2009.

    Novartis investigational adjuvanted (MF59) pre-pandemic avian influenza vaccine Aflunov shows long lasting, broadly cross protective immune response. Norvartis website. Available at: http://www.novartisvaccines.com/downloads/newsroom/media-releases/novartis%5Finvestigational%5Fadjuvanted.pdf . Published April 30, 2009. Accessed August 20, 2009.

    Questions and answers about avian influenza (bird flu) and avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/qa.htm. Updated May 2008. Accessed July 20, 2011.

    Schinirring L. Experts weigh new H5N1 vaccine strategies. CIDRAP website. Available at: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/panflu/news/feb0309antigens-jw.html . Published February 2009. Accessed August 4, 2009.

    Strategic national stockpile (SNS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/stockpile/ . Updated March 2009. Accessed August 4, 2009.

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