American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://www.aaos.org
American Association of Neurological Surgeons http://www.neurosurgerytoday.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org
The University of British Columbia Department of Orthopaedics http://www.orthosurgery.ubc.ca
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http://www.guidelines.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc%5Fid=5369&nbr=003672&string=spinal+AND+fusion. Accessed September 9, 2005.
Deyo RA, Nachemson S, et al. Spinal-fusion surgery—the case for restraint.
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Lipson SJ. Spinal-fusion surgery—advances and concerns.
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North American Spine Society. Phase III clinical guidelines for multidisciplinary spine care specialists. Spinal stenosis version 1.0. National Guideline Clearinghouse website. Available at:
http://www.guidelines.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc%5Fid=3609&nbr=002835&string=spinal+AND+fusion. Accessed September 7, 2005.
Spinal fusion. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at:
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00348. Updated September 2007. Accessed June 25, 2008.
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http://www.spine.org/articles/spinalfusion.cfm. Accessed August 30, 2005.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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