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  • Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    Initially, your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

    Diagnostic Criteria

    The National Cholesterol Education Program offers these criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. With this criteria, you have metabolic syndrome if you have three out of the five conditions.
    Central Obesity
    Central obesity occurs when extra fat tissue is found in the waist area. This has been found to have greater metabolic consequences. Central obesity may be defined as:
    • In men—waist measurement greater than or equal to 40 inches (102 cm)
    • In women—waist measurement greater than or equal to 35 inches (89 cm)
    Elevated Fasting Blood Sugar
    When your body cannot appropriately control the levels of sugar in the blood, impaired fasting glucose eventually occurs. This is defined as a fasting glucose level greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). People previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes meet this criteria.
    Elevated Blood Pressure
    Elevated blood pressure is defined as a blood pressure greater than or equal to 130/85 mm Hg.
    Elevated Triglycerides
    Triglycerides are a kind of fat found in your blood. This is defined as fasting blood triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L).
    Reduced HDL
    HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein. This breaks down and removes cholesterol from the body. It is sometimes referred to as the good cholesterol. This is defined as:
    • In men—HDL levels less than 40 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L)
    • In women—HDL levels less than 50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L)

    Diagnostic Tests

    There are a number of tests that your doctor may do. Examples include:
    Tests Done in Your Doctor's Office
    • Waist circumference—a measure around your hips and belly button
    • Blood pressure
    Lab Tests
    Fasting Glucose Test
    Your doctor will ask you to fast (not eat) after dinner the night before the test. The next morning, he will take a blood sample from your arm to test it for glucose levels.
    Tests for Cholesterol Levels
    These tests are also called lipid profile tests. Your doctor will take a sample of your blood and check your:
    • Total cholesterol
    • Serum triglyceride levels
    • LDL cholesterol levels—LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein and is the bad cholesterol.
    • HDL cholesterol levels test

    References

    Deen D. Metabolic Syndrome: time for action. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:2875-2882.

    Gami AS, Witt BJ, Howard DE, et al. Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:403-414.

    Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome: a multiplex cardiovascular risk factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:399-404.

    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. Circulation.2005;112:e285-e290.

    How is metabolic syndrome diagnosed? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms/diagnosis.html. Updated November 3, 2011. Accessed February 22, 2013.

    Metabolic syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what. Updated January 9, 2013. Accessed February 22, 2013.

    Reaven GM. The metabolic syndrome: requiescat in pace. Clin Chem. 2005;51: 931-938.

    Symptoms and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MetabolicSyndrome/Symptoms-and-Diagnosis-of-Metabolic-Syndrome%5FUCM%5F301925%5FArticle.jsp. Updated August 24, 2012. Accessed February 22, 2013.

    Tan CE, Ma S, Wai D, et al. Can we apply the National Cholesterol Education program Adult Treatment Panel Definition of the metabolic syndrome to Asians? Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1182-1186.

    Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Executive Summary. National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3xsum.pdf. Accessed February 22, 2013.

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