• Temporomandibular Disorder

    (TMD; Temporomandibular Joint Disorder; Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction; TMJ Syndrome; TMJ Osteoarthritis)


    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a painful condition of the joint in the jaw. The temporomandibular joints are the small joints in front of each ear. They attach the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull. The disorder may affect the joint in the jaw or the muscles surrounding it. The disorder can include:
    • Damage to the joint surface or intra-articular disc
    • Displacement or complete dislocation of jaw bones
    • Muscle spasm
    The Temporomandibular Joint
    factsheet image
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


    The exact cause of TMD is often unclear. Possible causes include:
    • Injury of the jaw or face
    • Excess tension in the jaw muscles
    • Faulty alignment between the upper and lower teeth
    • Disturbed movement of the jaw joint
    • Displacement or abnormal position of the jaw joint or cartilage disc inside the jaw joint
    • Arthritis or similar inflammatory process in the joint
    • Excess or limited motion of the joint

    Risk Factors

    TMD is more common in women aged 30-50 years old. Other factors that increase your chance of TMD include:


    TMD may cause:
    • Pain in the temporomandibular joint, jaw, or face
    • Pain may be worse with chewing, yawning, or opening the mouth
    • Clicking, popping, or grating sounds with movement of the jaw
    • A sensation of the jaw catching or locking briefly, while attempting to open or close the mouth, or while chewing
    • Difficulty opening the mouth completely
    • A bite that feels off, uncomfortable, or as though it is frequently changing
    • Headache
    • Earache
    • Neck pain


    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The physical exam may include:
    • Range of motion of the jaw tests
    • Listening for sounds of popping or clicking in the temporomandibular joints
    • Visual inspection of your teeth, temporomandibular joints, and muscles of your face and head
    • Palpation of the joints and the muscles of the face and head
    Images may be needed of your jaw to check for abnormalities causing TMD. This can be done with:
    • X-rays
    • Arthrography—jaw movements videotaped with x-rays taken after dye is injected into the joint
    • MRI scan
    • CT scan


    Usually, the least invasive measures will be tried first. Treatment may include:

    Lifestyle Measures

    The area will need time to heal:
    • Rest the jaw with a soft diet
    • Restrict movement with smaller bites, avoiding wide yawning, and gum chewing
    • Apply ice or heat packs for pain relief
    • Gentle jaw stretching and exercises


    The most commonly used medications include:
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen
    • Muscle relaxants
    • Antidepressants
    Some medication may be injected into the jaw such as:
    • Pain relievers, such as cortisone or lidocaine
    • Botulinum toxin (Botox)—may offer temporary relief if pain or clicking are major symptoms

    Physical Therapy

    To help reduce pain and allow muscles to relax:
    • Gentle massage or stretching exercises
    • Gentle strengthening exercises or muscle balance exercises to retain alignment
    • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

    Stress Reduction

    Some may benefit from counseling to learn stress management and relaxation techniques, such as:

    Dental Procedures

    A splint or mouth guard can be made to relax the jaw muscles, and prevent clenching and grinding of the teeth. The guard is usually worn at night. Unfortunately, there is not a lot of proof it works.
    Correction of bite abnormalities by a dentist or orthodontist is sometimes needed.

    Surgical Procedures

    Surgical correction is a last resort. Many of the available procedures have not been well-studied for their effectiveness.


    There are no current guidelines to prevent TMD.


    Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association http://www.mouthhealthy.org

    The TMJ Association http://www.tmj.org


    Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca

    Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery http://www.entcanada.org


    Borodic GE, Acquadro MA. The use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of chronic facial pain. J Pain. 2002;3(1):21-27.

    Haley DP, Schiffman EL, Lindgren BR, Anderson Q, Andreasen K. The relationship between clinical and MRI findings in patients with unilateral temporomandibular joint pain. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001;132(4):476-481.

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction . EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114703/Temporomandibular-joint-TMJ-dysfunction. Updated May 11, 2015. Accessed May 16, 2016.

    TMJ. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at: http://www.entnet.org/content/tmj. Updated December 2010. Accessed February 22, 2017.

    TMJ. American Dental Association Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/tmj. Accessed February 22, 2017.

    TMJ (temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders). National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/TMJ. Updated July 10, 2014. Accessed February 22, 2017.

    Temporomandibular disorders. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aaoms.org/images/uploads/pdfs/tmj%5Fdisorders.pdf. Published 2013. Accessed February 6, 2017.

    DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Turner JA, Mancl L, Aaron LA. Short- and long-term efficacy of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain: a randomized, controlled trial Pain. 2006;121(3):171-172.

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