• Temporal Arteritis

    (Giant Cell Arteritis)


    Temporal arteritis is inflammation of the arteries. It affects the arteries in the head, neck, and upper body. The temporal artery is most often affected. It runs over the temple, to the outside of the eye. In extreme or untreated cases, this condition can lead to blindness or strokes.
    2 other terms often associated with this condition include:
    • Giant cell arteritis (GCA)
    • Vasculitis
    Temporal Arteritis
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    The cause of temporal arteritis is not known. It may result from an autoimmune response in the body. An autoimmune disease is a condition in which the immune system mistakes the body’s own tissue for a foreign invader, attacking and damaging it.

    Risk Factors

    Temporal arteritis is more common in women, and in people aged 50 years and older. It is also more common among Caucasians, especially those of Scandinavian or northern European descent. Other factors may increase your chance of getting temporal arteritis include:
    • Family history
    • Polymyalgia rheumatica—a condition characterized by stiffness and pain in muscles of the neck, shoulders, lower back, hips, and thighs


    Temporal arteritis may cause:
    • Scalp pain or tenderness over the temporal artery
    • Headaches
    • Fever or flu-like symptoms
    • Pain when chewing
    • Pain in the jaw or tongue
    • Fatigue
    • Loss of appetite and weight loss
    • Vision changes
    • Sweats
    • Aches in the joints or muscles


    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A retinal exam may also be done.
    Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
    • Blood tests
    • Biopsy—removal of a sample of the temporal artery
    Images may be taken of the temporal artery. This can be done with ultrasound.


    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:

    Corticosteroid Therapy

    Corticosteroid therapy is used to decrease the swelling and inflammation. It will also help decrease the risk of blindness. At first, high doses are often given. The doses are then tapered off. Therapy is often continued for several years.
    Long-term use of corticosteroids has some harmful side effects. These may include:
    Supplements will help to stop these effects on the bone. The supplements may include:

    Low-Dose Aspirin

    You may be advised take low-dose aspirin every day. This may help to reduce the risk of vision loss associated with temporal arteritis.


    There are no current guidelines to prevent temporal arteritis.


    Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov


    Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca

    Canadian Society of Otolaryngology http://www.entcanada.org


    Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/giant-cell-arteritis-and-polymyalgia-rheumatica.html. Updated March 2014. Accessed June 13, 2016.

    Giant cell arteritis (including temporal arteritis). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115154/Giant-cell-arteritis-including-temporal-arteritis. Updated March 31, 2016. Accessed June 13, 2016.

    Karahaliou M, Vaiopoulos G, et al. Colour duplex sonography of temporal arteries before decision for biopsy: a prospective study in 55 patients with suspected giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R116.

    Larsson K, Mellström D, et al. Early menopause, low body mass index, and smoking are independent risk factors for developing giant cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:529-532.

    Parikh M, Miller NR, et al. Prevalence of a normal c-reactive protein with an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate in biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(10):1842-1845.

    Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Polymyalgia/default.asp. Updated April 2015. Accessed June 13, 2016.

    Smetana GW, Shmerling RH. Does this patient have temporal arteritis? JAMA. 2002; 287:92.

    Yellin AE, DeMeester TR. Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. JAMA Surgery. 2004;139(11):1146-1147.

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