11658 Health Library | Health and Wellness | Wellmont Health System
  • Mumps

    (Epidemic Parotitis)

    Definition

    Mumps is a viral infection. The infection causes fever and swelling of the parotid glands. Because of the mumps vaccine, this condition is not as common as it once was in the United States.
    Swollen Parotid Gland
    Swollen Parotid Gland
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Causes

    The virus is usually spread through contact with an infected person's saliva. The mumps virus is highly contagious. It spreads easily among people in close contact.

    Risk Factors

    These factors increase your chance of developing mumps:
    • Being exposed to unvaccinated people or to people who have mumps
    • Being born after 1956 and never having mumps, or not being vaccinated after first birthday
    • Age: 10-19 years
    • Season: winter
    • Having a weakened immune system, even if you have been vaccinated
    Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors.

    Symptoms

    About one-third of cases have no symptoms at all. Symptoms often occur 2-3 weeks after exposure to the virus.
    Mumps may cause:
    • Painful swelling of the parotid glands (under the cheeks and jaw)
    • Fever
    • Sore throat
    • Headache
    • Stiff neck
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Drowsiness
    Other areas may also be affected, such as:
    • Swelling and pain under the tongue, jaw, or front of the chest
    • In males: painful inflammation of the testicles
    • In females: inflammation of the ovaries, which results in pain or tenderness in the abdomen

    Diagnosis

    The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. The doctor will diagnose the mumps based on these findings.

    Treatment

    There is no specific treatment for mumps. Mumps is caused by a virus. Viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics. Do not treat mumps with aspirin.
    Note: Do not give aspirin to children or teens with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving a child aspirin.
    In general, mumps will last about 10-12 days. Try these comfort measures:
    • Apply hot or cold compresses to swollen areas.
    • Gargle with warm salt water to soothe sore throat.
    • Treat high fever with acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
    • Drink plenty of liquids. Avoid tart or acidic drinks (such as, orange juice, lemonade).
    • Eat a soft, bland diet.

    Complications

    In most healthy children, complications are rare. When complications do occur, they include:
    • Deafness (may not be permanent)
    • Swelling or infection of the brain, pancreas, heart, or other organs
    • Testicular inflammation (may occur in up to 20% of adolescent boys and men)
    • Problems with male fertility (sterility is rare)

    Prevention

    Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent mumps. The vaccine contains live viruses that can no longer cause disease. The mumps vaccine is usually given in combination with:
    The regular schedule for giving the vaccine is at age 12-15 months and again at age 4-6 years.
    Ask your doctor if the vaccine is right for you. In general, avoid the vaccine if you:
    • Have had severe allergic reactions to vaccines or vaccine components
    • Are pregnant—Avoid pregnancy for 1-3 months after receiving the vaccine.
    • Have a weakened immune system
    • Have a high fever or severe upper respiratory tract infection
    If you are not vaccinated, avoid contact with someone who has mumps. Discuss the benefits of vaccination with your doctor.

    RESOURCES

    American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org

    American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.aap.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    AboutKidsHealth http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

    College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca

    References

    Braunwald E. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2001.

    Infertility in men. University of Maryland Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/what%5Fcauses%5Fof%5Fmale%5Finfertility%5F000067%5F4.htm. Updated October 2006. Accessed July 28, 2008.

    Kassianos G. Vaccination for tomorrow: the need to improve immunisation rates. J Fam Health Care. 2010;20(1):13-6.

    Mumps. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated July 2008. Accessed July 28, 2008.

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