• Gluteal Strain

    (Pulled Gluteal Muscle)

    Definition

    A strained gluteal muscle is a partial tear of the small fibers of the gluteal muscles. The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles in the buttocks. This is not a common injury, but is sometimes seen in runners, dancers, or other athletes.
    Posterior Hip and Thigh Muscles
    Posterior Thigh Muscles
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Causes

    A gluteal strain can be caused by:
    • Stretching the gluteal muscles beyond the amount of tension that they can withstand
    • Suddenly putting stress on the gluteal muscles when they are not ready for the stress
    • Using the gluteal muscles too much on a certain day
    • A direct blow to the gluteal muscles

    Risk Factors

    A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting an injury. Risk factors for a gluteal strain include:
      Participation in sports that require bursts of speed, such as:
      • Running
      • Hurdles
      • Long jump
      • Basketball
      • Soccer
      • Football
      • Rugby
    • Fatigue
    • Tight gluteal muscles
    • Overexertion
    • Cold weather

    Symptoms

    Symptoms include:
    • Pain and tenderness in the buttocks
    • Stiffness in the gluteal muscles
    • Weakness of the gluteal muscles
    • Bruising on the buttocks (if blood vessels are broken)

    Diagnosis

    The doctor will ask about your symptoms, medical history, recent physical activity, and how the injury occurred. The doctor will also examine your buttocks for:
    • Tenderness and bruising
    • Pain when contracting the gluteal muscles, particularly against resistance
    Muscle strains are graded according to their severity:

    Grade 1

    • Stretching with some microtearing of muscle fibers
    • Recovery—2 weeks

    Grade 2

    • Partial tearing of muscle fibers
    • Recovery—1-2 months

    Grade 3

    • Complete tearing (rupture) of muscle fibers (this is rare with the gluteal muscles)
    • Recovery—more than three months
    For a severe gluteal strain, you may have an MRI scan. Professional and collegiate athletes sometimes have MRI scans to predict the length of recovery.

    Treatment

    Treatment depends on the severity of the strain.
    Treatment usually includes:

    Rest

    Do not do activities that cause pain, such as running, jumping, and weightlifting using the leg, hip, and buttocks muscles. If normal walking hurts, shorten your stride. Do not play sports until the pain is gone.

    Cold

    Apply ice or a cold pack to the affected buttock for 15-20 minutes, four times a day, for several days after the injury. Wrap the ice or cold pack in a towel. Do not apply the ice directly to your skin.

    Pain Relief Medications

    Your doctor may recommend that you take over-the-counter medicines, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen, to help relieve pain. Topical pain medicines (such as creams, patches) applied to the skin are another option.
    Ask your doctor if you have any questions about using these medications. If you still have tenderness while taking these drugs, do not return to physical activity. Check with your doctor before returning to activity.

    Heat

    Apply heat to the affected buttock only when you are returning to physical activity. Then use it before stretching or getting ready to play sports.

    Rehabilitation

    When the acute pain is gone, start gentle stretching and strengthening exercises as recommended by a healthcare professional. Stay within pain limits. Hold each stretch for about 10 seconds and repeat six times. Stretch several times each day.
    If you are diagnosed with a gluteal muscle strain, follow your doctor's instructions.
    If you are diagnosed with a gluteal muscle strain, follow your doctor's instructions.

    Prevention

    To reduce the chance that you will strain a gluteal muscle:
    • Keep your gluteal muscles strong so they can absorb the energy of sudden physical stress.
    • After a short warm-up period, stretch your gluteal muscles before physical activity.
    • Learn the proper technique for exercise and sporting activities. This will decrease stress on all your muscles, including your gluteal muscles.

    RESOURCES

    American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org

    American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation http://www.aapmr.org

    American Council on Exercise http://www.acefitness.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Academy of Sports Medicine http://www.casm-acms.org

    The Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org

    Healthy Living UnitPublic Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

    Physical Therapy Canada http://www.physicaltherapy.ca

    References

    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aaos.org.

    The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine website. Available at: http://www.sportsmed.org/tabs/Index.aspx.

    Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma. Available at: http://www.nismat.org/.

    Sports Injuries: Basic Principles of Prevention and Care. Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993.

    10/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.

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