• Gastritis

    Definition

    Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. Gastritis can be defined as:
    • Acute—comes on suddenly and lasts for a short time
    • Chronic—either long lasting or recurrent
    Gastritis can be erosive. Erosive gastritis can wear away the lining of the stomach. It may also cause ulcers and bleeding.

    Causes

    Causes of acute gastritis include:
    Causes of chronic gastritis include:
    • Bacterial infection, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
    • Viral infection
    • Fungal infection
    • NSAID use
    • Alcohol use disorder
    • Reflux of bile into the stomach
    • Autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease , or sarcoidosis
    • Pernicious anemia—a cause of autoimmune gastritis
    • Radiation therapy
    • Swallowing caustic substances

    Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your chance of acute gastritis include:
    • NSAID use
    • Excess alcohol use
    • Head injury
    • Surgery
    • Respiratory failure
    • Kidney failure
    • Liver failure
    Factors that increase your chance of getting chronic gastritis include:
    • H. pylori infection
    • NSAID use
    • Excessive alcohol intake

    Symptoms

    Gastritis may cause:
    • Abdominal burning and pain
    • Indigestion
    • Acid reflux, when stomach acid comes up the esophagus
    • Burping
    • Bloating
    • Loss of appetite
    • Feeling full
    • Nausea and vomiting
    If the gastritis is causing bleeding, you may notice:
    • Bloody or black vomit
    • Bloody or dark black, tarry stools

    Diagnosis

    The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
    Tests may include:
    • Upper GI series—x-rays with contrast material to highlight abnormalities (also called a barium swallow)
    • Upper GI endoscopy —a thin, lighted tube inserted down the throat and into the stomach to examine the inside of the stomach
    • Biopsy
    • Blood, breath, or stool tests—to check for infection with the bacteria H. pylori
    Upper GI Endoscopy
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    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options may include:

    Medications

    Medications for gastritis help relieve symptoms and help heal the stomach lining. Medications are available over-the-counter or by prescription. Your doctor may recommend:
    • Antacids
    • H-2 blockers
    • Proton pump inhibitors
    • Antibiotics if an infection is present or possible
    Treatment may also include stopping or changing NSAIDs or other medications that may be causing the irritation.

    Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of gastritis from NSAIDs:
    • Use other drugs when possible for managing pain.
    • Take the lowest possible dose.
    • Do not take drugs longer than needed.
    • Do not drink alcohol while taking the drugs.
    To help reduce your chance of H. pylori infection:
    • Wash your hands after using the bathroom and before eating or preparing food.
    • Drink water from a safe source.
    If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how to successfully quit. Avoid alcohol.

    RESOURCES

    American College of Gastroenterology http://patients.gi.org

    American Gastroenterological Association http://www.gastro.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Association of Gastroenterology https://www.cag-acg.org

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

    References

    Acute gastritis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115779/Acute-gastritis. Updated January 8, 2013. Accessed September 28, 2016.

    Chronic gastritis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T170655/Chronic-gastritis. Updated August 28, 2014. Accessed September 28, 2016.

    Gastritis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/gastritis/Pages/facts.aspx. Updated April 23, 2012. Accessed May 1, 2013.

    Revision Information

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