• Dementia


    Dementia is a general loss of mental abilities. It can include a loss of ability to think, reason, learn, and understand. To be considered dementia, these mental losses must be severe enough to interfere with day-to-day activities. Dementia must also have:
    • Memory problems
    • Mental loss that is severe enough to cause problems with one or more of the following:
      • Language
      • Visuospatial function
      • Executive function—foresight, planning, anticipation, and insight
      • Praxis—learned motor skills
    Some Areas of the Brain Affected by Dementia
    Nucleus factsheet image
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


    Causes of dementia include:

    Risk Factors

    Increasing age is the most common factor that increases your chance of developing dementia. Other factors include:


    Symptoms often begin mildly and get more severe over time. Symptoms vary according to the cause of the dementia, but often include:
      Increasing trouble remembering things, such as:
      • How to get to familiar locations
      • What the names of family and friends are
      • Where common objects are usually kept
      • How to do simple math
      • How to do usual tasks, such as cooking, dressing, or bathing
      • How to drive
      • How to pay bills
    • Having difficulty concentrating on tasks
    • Having difficulty completing sentences due to lost/forgotten words—may continue to a complete inability to speak
    • Forgetting the date, time of day, season
    • Getting lost in familiar surroundings
    • Being withdrawn, losing interest in usual activities
    • Having mood swings
    • Having personality changes
    • Walking in a slow, shuffling way
    • Having poor coordination
    • Losing purposeful movement


    Your doctor may diagnose dementia through:
    • An extensive medical history from you and your family
    • Observing your behavior
    • A physical exam
    • Tests for your nervous system
    • Mental status and psychological tests
    Imaging tests take pictures of internal body structures. These may include:
    Cerebrospinal fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord can be analyzed with a lumbar puncture.


    Currently, there are no treatments to cure many types of dementia. Some medication may help to decrease the symptoms of dementia or slow its course.


    Two types of medications that may be used to reduce the symptoms of dementia include:
    • Cholinesterase inhibitors
    • N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists
    Treatments that are being studied include:
    • Gamma-secretase inhibitors.
    • Tau fiber aggregation inhibitors.
    • Herbs and supplements, such as vitamin E , ginkgo biloba , or huperzine A. Currently, evidence is mixed as to the effectiveness of these natural remedies.

    Lifestyle Management

    This type of support is critical for people with dementia. Behavioral and environmental support includes:
    • Keeping you safe in your home
    • Providing a calm, quiet, predictable environment
    • Providing appropriate eyewear and hearing aids, easy-to-read clocks, and calendars
    • Participating in music therapy and/or dance therapy
    • Participating in physical and occupational therapy for daily activities
    • Encouraging light exercise
    • Eating a healthful diet
    • Discussing healthcare wishes with family members and doctors and appointing a healthcare proxy and a legal power of attorney

    Psychiatric Medications

    People with dementia often develop psychiatric symptoms. You may need appropriate treatment, such as:
    • Antidepressants
    • Antianxiety medications
    • Mood stabilizers
    • Antipsychotics

    Caregiver Support

    Caring for a person with dementia is difficult. Those providing care will need support. The Alzheimer’s Association is an excellent resource for families and caregivers.


    While the exact cause of dementia is not known, these steps may help to reduce your risk:
    • Eat a healthful diet. This will help you to maintain good levels of vitamin B12 and cholesterol.
    • Exercise regularly. This can also enhance cardiovascular health, which may delay the onset of vascular dementia.
    • Alcohol may have some benefits if you use it in moderation. This means no more than two drinks per day for a man, and one drink per day for a woman. Moderate amounts of alcohol may decrease your risk of dementia. Higher amounts of alcohol however, can increase your risk of dementia.
    • Engage in mentally stimulating activity. This may also reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.


    Alzheimer's Association http://www.alz.org

    American Academy of Neurology http://www.aan.com


    Alzheimer Society Canada http://www.alzheimer.ca

    Toronto Dementia Network http://www.dementiatoronto.org


    Alzheimer dementia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 29, 2015. Accessed August 28, 2015.

    Alzheimer's disease medications fact sheet. National Institute on Aging website. Available at: https://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-medications-fact-sheet. Updated August 12, 2015. Accessed August 28, 2015.

    Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer’s dementia. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/biomedical-libraries/natural-alternative-treatments. Updated May 4, 2015. Accessed August 28, 2015.

    DeKosky S, Jeff D, Williamson A, et al. Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300(19):2253-2262.

    Dementia evaluation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 29, 2014. Accessed August 28, 2015.

    Gidoni R, Benussi L, Paterlini A, Albertini V, Binetti G, Emanuele E. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease: The present and the future. Neurodegen Dis. 2011;8(6):413-20.

    Kaduszkiewicz H, Zimmermann T, Beck-Bornholdt HP, van den Bussche H. Cholinesterase inhibitors for patients with Alzheimer's disease: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials. BMJ. 2005;331(7512):321-327.

    Ledger AJ, Baker FA. An investigation of long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation levels of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Aging Ment Health. 2007;11(3):330-338.

    Marjoribanks J, Farquhar C, Roberts H, Lethaby A. Long term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD004143.

    Middleton LE, Yaffe K. Promising strategies for the prevention of dementia. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(10):1210-1215.

    O'Brien JT, Colloby S, Fenwick J, et al. Dopamine transporter loss visualized with FP-CIT SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(6):919-925.

    Schneider L, Dagerman K, Insel P. Risk of death with atypical antipsychotic drug treatment for dementia: Meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. JAMA. 2005;294(15):1934-1943.

    2/24/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;1:CD003120.

    9/18/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Anstey KJ, Mack HA, Cherbuin N. Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: Meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17(7):542-555.

    1/8/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Snitz BE, O'Meara ES, Carlson MC, et al. Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009;302(24):2663-2670.

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