• Fitness: Elixir for the Ages

    IMAGE Growing older is no picnic…but a regular fitness routine can jump start your memory, your metabolism, and your state of mind.

    Paying the Price for Not Exercising

    "Exercise contributes to the physical and psychological well-being that defines healthy aging," says Robert Mazzeo, PhD, of the American College of Sports Medicine.
    The aging process brings a natural decline in strength caused by the loss of muscle tissue. This promotes frailty and the impaired ability to move about with ease, which is often associated with aging. Decreased strength means less energy to do everyday activities, such as household chores, grocery shopping, and climbing stairs.
    An inactive lifestyle further aggravates the aging process by increasing the risk of developing obesity and a host of diseases, including high blood pressure, stroke, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and coronary artery disease.

    Helping to Reverse the Effects of Aging

    Now for the good news! Regular, moderate physical activity has been shown to lower the risk of or improve the symptoms of many chronic diseases. Exercise helps build muscle and bone strength and improves balance and flexibility—all of which can protect your body from falls that can cause debilitating fractures. Exercise may also boost the immune system to help fight off colds and flu, control arthritic symptoms such as joint swelling and pain, improve mood and self-confidence, and enhance a deeper sleep.
    In a study of postmenopausal women at the Tufts University Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging in Boston, Miriam Nelson, PhD, found that the women who participated in a strength-training program for one year reversed some aspects of aging by 15 to 20 years. The women increased their strength and bone mass, and benefited from a trimmer body, which was a result of well-toned muscles. One of the study's most interesting side effects was that the women became more active overall, with more energy and self-confidence to try out new activities such as dancing, bicycling, and even rollerblading!

    Gaining Benefits at Any Age

    Even the frailest elderly people benefit from exercise. Maria Fiatarone, MD, a researcher at Harvard Medical School, placed 100 nursing home residents ranging in age from 72 to 98 years old on a 10-week strength-training regimen. Most of the residents in the study depended on canes, walkers, or wheelchairs. By the end of the program, not only did they increase their muscle size and strength, but they also moved about with greater ease, even improving their ability to climb stairs—all of which greatly boosted their morale.

    Getting Help for Getting Started

    Anyone, at any age and with almost any condition (with some exceptions), can be physically active to some degree. Before starting an exercise program, first talk to your doctor. This is especially important if you:
    • Are older
    • Have a chronic disease
    • Are taking medicine
    • Are overweight
    • Have not exercised regularly in the past few years
    Your doctor may have suggestions for an exercise regimen tailored to your particular needs. In some cases, you may be referred to a physical therapist or certified fitness trainer.

    Having a Goal in Mind

    Once you have approval from your doctor, what should you aim for? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends these exercise guidelines to gain health benefits:
    • Throughout the week, aim for 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (eg, walking briskly). In addition, do strength-training exercises to work the muscles in your legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, and arms. Strength training should be done two or more times per week.
    • Or, aim for 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercises (eg, jogging, running) throughout the week. Also, do the strength-training exercises.
    • Or, do a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercises, along with strength training.
    To gain even more health benefits, the CDC recommends these weekly goals:
    • 300 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise along with two (or more) days of strength training
    • Or, 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise and strength training
    • Or, a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercises and strength-training
    Remember that it is okay if you exercise for just 10 minutes at a time!

    Including Some Variety

      Remember that growing older is inevitable—feeling old is not. Keeping active at any age reaps everlasting rewards that will allow you to enjoy life to its fullest.

      RESOURCES

      National Institute on Aging http://www.nia.nih.gov/

      NIH Senior Health http://nihseniorhealth.gov/

      CANADIAN RESOURCES

      Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/

      Seniors HealthPublic Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/sh-sa-eng.php/

      References

      Bean JF, Vora A, Frontera WR. Benefits of exercise for community-dwelling older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil . 2004;85(Suppl 3):S33.

      Bischoff H, Stahelin H, Dick W, et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;81:343-351.

      Exercise: how to get started. Family Doctor.org website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/physical/basics/015.html. Updated December 10, 2010. Accessed July 21, 2011.

      Fiatarone M, O'Neill E, Ryan N, et al. Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. The New England Journal of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199406233302501. Published 1994. Accessed July 21, 2011.

      Frankel JE, Bean JF, Frontera WR. Exercise in the elderly: research and clinical practice. Clin Geriatr Med. 2006; 22(2): 239-56; vii.

      How much physical activity do older adults need? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/olderadults.html. Updated March 30, 2011. Accessed August 22, 2011.

      Matthews CE, Ockene IS, Freedson PS, Rosal MC, Merriam PA, Hebert JR. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and risk of upper-respiratory tract infection. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(8):1242-1248.

      Osteoarthritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Updated July 8, 2010. Accessed July 21, 2011.

      Neid R, Franklin B. Promoting and prescribing exercise for the elderly. American Family Physician website. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0201/p419.html. Published February 1, 2002. Accessed July 21, 2011.

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