American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
Coronary Artery Disease: High Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood Vessels. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/causes-risk-factors/high-homocysteine-level-how-it-affects-your-blood-vessels.html. Updated May 2014. Accessed December 30, 2014.
Eikelboom JW, Lonn E, Genest J Jr, et al. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence.
Ann Intern Med.1999 Sep 7;131:363-375.
Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW. Homocysteine and vascular disease.
Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 4, 2013. Accessed December 30, 2014.
Homocysteine, folic acid, and cardiovascular disease. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Homocysteine-Folic-Acid-and-Cardiovascular-Disease%5FUCM%5F305997%5FArticle.jsp. Updated March 18, 2014. Accessed December 30, 2014.
Liem A, Reynierse-Buitenwerf GH, Zwinderman AH, Jukema JW, van Veldhuisen DJ. Secondary prevention with folic acid: Effects on clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:2105–2113.
Moustapha A, Robinson K. Homocysteine: an emerging age-related cardiovascular risk factor.
Pyridoxine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 18, 2013. Accessed December 30, 2014.
Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Pin R, Hess OM. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the Swiss Heart study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:973–979.
Stein JH, McBride PE. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Athrosclerotic Vascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Screening, and Treatment. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(12):1301-1306.
Vitamin B12. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 5, 2013. Accessed December 30, 2014.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © 2012 EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.
Maybe it's time to stop guessing. If you've been wanting to make some changes but just aren't sure how, the free personal health survey from LiveWell is a great place to start.
Fight heart disease early and prevent heart attacks with HeartSHAPE® - a painless, non-invasive test that takes pictures of your heart to scan for early-stage coronary disease.
How many calories do you need to eat each day to maintain your weight and fuel your physical activity? Enter a few of your stats into this calculator to find out.
Using body mass index as a reference, this calculator determines your ideal body weight range. All you need to do is enter your height.
This tool considers your height and weight to assess your weight status.
Wellmont Nurse Connection is your resource for valuable health information any time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Speak to a Nurse any time, day or night, at (423) 723-6877 or toll-free at 1-877-230-NURSE.
You clicked on a link that will cause you to leave myWellmont.
For security purposes you will be signed out.