• Sodium

    PD Food Essentials FD001751 Sodium, one of the components of salt, is a mineral that is found in every cell of the body, with greatest concentrations in the fluid outside and in between cells. Sodium regulates the water content inside and outside our cells.

    Functions

    Sodium performs many functions in the body. Some of them include:
    • Regulation of fluid balance
    • Maintenance of acid-base balance
    • Carbon dioxide transport
    • Muscle contraction
    • Nerve impulse transmission

    Recommended Intake

    It is recommended that people get no more than 2,300 mg of sodium per day.
    Certain adults should reduce intake to 1,500 mg of sodium per day. This includes:
    The Institute of Medicine has set Adequate Intake (AI) levels for sodium. This AI is the recommended daily average intake for healthy and moderately active people.
    Age group Adequate Intake (AI)
    (mg/day)
    Children: 1-3 years 1,000 mg
    Children: 4-8 years 1,200 mg
    Children: 9-18 years 1,500 mg
    Adults: 19-50 years 1,500 mg
    Adults 51-70 years 1,300 mg
    Adults 71 years and older 1,200 mg

    Too Little Sodium

    Since the typical American diet is rich in sodium, deficiencies are uncommon in healthy people.
    A sodium deficiency may accompany extreme body fluid loss, such as in the case of starvation, profuse sweating, or excess vomiting or diarrhea.

    Too Much Sodium

    High sodium intakes have been correlated with elevated blood pressure and edema. Increasing dietary salt intake might also raise the risk of developing kidney stones.

    Major Food Sources

    Table salt is the major source of dietary sodium—about 1/3 to 1/2 of the sodium we consume is added during cooking or at the table. Fast foods and commercially processed foods, which are canned, frozen, bagged, boxed, or instant, also add a significant amount of sodium to the typical American diet. These include:
    • Beef broth
    • Ketchup
    • Commercial soups
    • French fries
    • Gravies
    • Olives
    • Pickles
    • Potato chips
    • Salted snack foods
    • Sandwich meats
    • Sauces
    • Sauerkraut
    • Tomato-based products
    Sodium occurs naturally in:
    • Eggs
    • Fish
    • Meats
    • Milk products
    • Poultry
    • Shellfish
    • Soft water

    Reading Food Labels

    All food products contain a Nutrition Facts label, which states a food's sodium content. The following terms are also used on food packaging:
    Food Label Term Meaning
    Sodium free Less than 5 mg/serving
    Very low sodium 35 mg or less/serving
    Low sodium 140 mg or less/serving
    Reduced sodium 25% reduction per serving in sodium content from original product
    Unsalted, no salt added, without added salt Processed without salt when salt normally would be used in processing

    Tips for Lowering Your Sodium Intake

    1. Read the nutrition label to find out how much sodium is in the foods you are buying.
    2. Gradually cut down on the amount of salt you use. Your taste buds will adjust to less salt.
    3. Taste your food before you salt it.
    4. Substitute flavorful ingredients for salt in cooking, such as garlic, oregano, lemon or lime juice, and other herbs, spices, and seasonings.
    5. Opt for fresh foods instead of processed ones. For example, select fresh or plain frozen vegetables and meats instead of those canned with salt.
    6. Look for low sodium or reduced sodium, or no salt added versions of such foods as: canned vegetables; vegetable juices; dried soup mixes; bouillon; condiments; snack foods; crackers and bakery products; canned soups; butter, margarine; cheeses; canned tuna; and processed meats.
    7. Cook and eat at home. Adjust your recipes to gradually cut down on the amount of salt you use. If some of the ingredients already contain salt, such as canned soup, canned vegetables, or cheese, you do not need to add more salt.
    8. Cook rice, pasta, and hot cereals without salt or with less salt than the package calls for. Flavored rice, pasta, and cereal mixes generally already contain added salt.
    9. Limit your use of condiments such as soy sauce, dill pickles, salad dressings, and packaged sauces.
    10. When dining out, order a low-salt meal or ask the chef not to add salt to your meal.
    11. Also when dining out, ask for sauces and dressings to be served on the side, so that you can control the amount that you add.

    RESOURCES

    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics http://www.eatright.org

    Choose My Plate http://www.choosemyplate.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index%5Fe.html

    References

    Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2013.

    Food salt & health. Salt Institute website. Available at: http://www.saltinstitute.org/Issues-in-focus/Food-salt-health. Accessed March 7, 2013.

    Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Updated March 7, 2013. Accessed March 7, 2013.

    Reduce salt and sodium in your diet. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/prevent/sodium/sodium.htm. Accessed March 7, 2013.

    Salt. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/salt/index.htm. Updated December 14, 2012. Accessed March 7, 2013.

    Salt and sodium. 10 tips to help you cut back. US Department of Agriculture Choose My Plate website. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/downloads/TenTips/DGTipsheet14SaltAndSodium.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2013.

    Sodium. Health Vitamins Guide website. Available at: http://www.healthvitaminsguide.com/minerals/sodium.htm. Accessed March 7, 2013.

    Sodium (salt or sodium chloride). American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyDietGoals/Sodium-Salt-or-Sodium-Chloride%5FUCM%5F303290%5FArticle.jsp. Updated March 5, 2013. Accessed March 7, 2013.

    Sodium Chloride. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what. Updated January 18, 2013. Accessed March 7, 2013.

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