• Is It a Cold? Or Is It the Flu? And What Do You Do?

    IMAGE With so many people affected by the common cold and the flu, it may seem impossible to avoid catching one, or both. But you can greatly reduce your chances. Arm yourself with the following information about the common cold and the flu—and don't be the next victim.

    Is It A Cold or the Flu?

    The symptoms for a cold and the flu are somewhat similar. This easy-to-read chart can help you determine which infection you may have.
    Symptom Cold Flu
    Fever Rare Usual, high (100ºF-102°F [37.8ºC-38.8°C]) last 3-4 days
    Headache Rare Common
    General aches, pains Slight Usual; often severe
    Fatigue, weakness Sometimes Usual, can last up to 2-3 weeks
    Extreme exhaustion Never Usual; at the beginning of the illness
    Stuffy nose Common Sometimes
    Sneezing Usual Sometimes
    Sore throat Common Sometimes
    Chest discomfort, cough Mild to moderate, hacking cough Common; can become severe
    Source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    Facts About the Common Cold

    A cold is a minor infection of the throat and nose. More than 200 different viruses are known to cause symptoms of a cold—although rhinoviruses and coronaviruses cause the majority of colds. Cold symptoms usually last about 1-2 weeks. Rarely, a cold can turn into a severe lower respiratory infection in young children.

    Preventing a Cold

    Colds are extremely contagious. A cold is transmitted by droplets of fluid that contain the cold virus. These droplets become airborne when an infected person sneezes, coughs, or speaks. You contaminate yourself by inhaling these droplets or touching a surface that the viruses have landed on and then touching your eyes or nose. To prevent getting a cold, take these simple precautions:
    • Avoid close contact with people who have a cold.
    • Wash your hands often.
    • Do not touch your nose, eyes, or mouth. This will help you avoid infecting yourself with germs you may have picked up.
    Avoid spreading your cold to others by:
    • Covering your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue away. If you do not have a tissue handy then put your arm up over your face and sneeze into your elbow. (Sneezing onto your hands increases your likelihood of spreading the cold to others!)
    • Wash your hands often.
    • Limit close contact with others when you are sick.

    Treating a Cold

    Antibiotics will not cure a cold. In fact, you cannot cure a cold. But, certain things can help you reduce your discomfort. These include:
      Take certain over-the-counter (OTC) medications. For example, acetaminophen helps to relieve aches and fever, while decongestants and antihistamines combat congestion. Use caution, though, when giving these medications to children.
      • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that OTC cough and cold products should not be used to treat infants or children less than two years old and supports not using them in children less than four years old. Rare but serious side effects have been reported, including death, convulsions, rapid heart rates, and decreased levels of consciousness. OTC cough and cold products include decongestants, expectorants, antihistamines, and antitussives (cough suppressants). The FDA is still reviewing data concerning the safety of these products in children aged 2-11 years. There have been serious side effects reported in this age group as well.
    • Drink at plenty of water every day. This will help keep you hydrated.
    • Avoid alcohol as it promotes dehydration.
    • Avoid smoke. It irritates an already sore throat and intensifies a cough.
    • Get plenty of rest.
    • Use a humidifier—an electric device that puts moisture into the air.

    Facts About the Flu

    The flu is in an infection of the upper respiratory tract. It is caused by the influenza virus and is spread through the air. The flu is highly contagious. When an infected person sneezes, coughs, or speaks, tiny droplets full of flu particles are expelled. Because these droplets are small, they are suspended in the air long enough for another person to inhale them.
    The flu and its symptoms are more severe than those of the common cold. The flu can lead to bronchitis or pneumonia. In addition, it can be life-threatening for the elderly, people with lung disease, and anyone with a weakened immune system.

    Preventing the Flu

    A flu shot can lower your chance of getting the flu. You should get vaccinated between September and January (or later since the flu season can last much longer).
    The United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone over six months of age should get vaccinated against the flu each year. Anyone who wants to reduce their risk of the flu should consider the vaccine.
    Hand washing can also prevent the flu. Even if someone in your home has the flu, you can reduce your risk of getting sick by washing your hands. If soap and water are not available, hand sanitizers are also effective.

    Treating the Flu

    Most importantly, when you have the flu, you need rest. And until your symptoms are gone, it is a good idea to not go back to your full activity level. You also need plenty of liquids.
    Antiviral medicines generally may help relieve symptoms and shorten the time you are sick. They must be taken within 48 hours of the first symptoms.
    Antiviral medicines include:
    • Zanamivir (Relenza)—This may worsen asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
    • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)—Some kinds of seasonal influenza virus are resistant to this drug.
    • Amantadine (Symmetrel)—Some kinds of seasonal influenza virus are resistant to this drug.
    • Rimantadine (Flumadine)—Some kinds of seasonal influenza virus are resistant to this drug.
    Oseltamivir (and perhaps zanamivir) may increase the risk of self-injury and confusion shortly after taking, especially in children. Children should be closely monitored for signs of unusual behavior.
    To relieve the aches and fever associated with the flu, you can try acetaminophen, found in over-the-counter medications such as Tylenol. For congestion, stuffy nose, and cough, you may want to try a combination of decongestant and antihistamine.

    When to Call the Doctor

    You usually do not need to call a doctor if you have signs of the flu or a cold. However, you should contact your doctor if you are at high risk for complications or if you experience any of the following difficulties:
    • Your symptoms get worse.
    • Your symptoms last a long time.
    • After you feel better, you develop signs of a more serious problem. These include:
      • Sick-to-your-stomach feeling
      • Vomiting
      • High fever
      • Shaking chills
      • Chest pain
      • Coughing with a thick mucus
    Because the four flu medications listed above may be able to reduce the symptoms of influenza and prevent hospitalization and death among high-risk persons (for example, those above age 65, young children, and persons with chronic illnesses requiring frequent medical attention), you and your doctor may choose to develop a “flu” plan if you fall into a high-risk category. By following such a plan you may be able to start taking an anti-flu medication quickly in the (unlikely) event your yearly flu vaccine does not protect you against the symptoms of influenza.

    RESOURCES

    Flu.gov http://www.flu.gov/

    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases http://www.niaid.nih.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/

    Healthy U http://www.healthyalberta.com/

    References

    Baker CJ, Pickerling LK, Chilton L, et al; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2011. Ann Intern Med. 1 Feb 2011. 154(3):168-173.

    Carson-Dewitt R. Seasonal influenza. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated April 16, 2010. Accessed July 2, 2010.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years —United States, 2011. MMWR. 2011;60(5).

    Is it a cold or the flu? National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Flu/Pages/coldOrFlu.aspx. Accessed July 20, 2011.

    McCoy K. Seasonal influenza vaccine. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated November 17, 2009. Accessed July 2, 2010.

    1/30/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Public health advisory: Nonprescription cough and cold medicine use in children—FDA recommends that over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold products not be used for infants and children under 2 years of age. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/advisory/cough%5Fcold%5F2008.htm. Accessed January 30, 3008.

    11/9/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, et al. Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(7):437-446.

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