• Cosmetic Surgery: A Rundown of Procedures

    IMAGE Plastic surgery side effects are generally temporary and the risks and recovery times may vary. Your physician can give you an estimated recovery time that is specific for you. Risk tends to be greater with the use of general anesthesia, which puts you to sleep. Local anesthesia, on the other hand, is applied directly to the site of the surgery and does not put you to sleep.
    Cosmetic procedures that are not necessitated by a medical condition are generally not covered by insurance.

    Above the Neck

    Nose Reshaping (Rhinoplasty)

    Description: General anesthesia is administered. The skin of the nose is separated from the bone and cartilage, which is sculpted to the desired shape. The skin is redraped over the new framework and a splint is applied to keep the nose stabilized. Rhinoplasty usually takes 2-4 hours, but times vary with individual circumstances.
    Side Effects: Swelling and bruising around the nose, headache, bleeding, nasal stuffiness, and discomfort
    Potential Risks: Infection, small burst blood vessels, deviated septum, and incomplete improvement, requiring additional surgery
    Recovery Time:Stitches are removed after a week and a splint is worn for 1–2 weeks. Recovery usually takes 3–4 weeks for full healing.

    Facelift (Rhytidectomy)

    Description: General anesthesia is administered. Incisions are made, usually just above the hairline at the temples, extending in a natural line from in front of the ear to behind the earlobe to the lower back part of the scalp. The skin is separated from the underlying fat and muscle. Fat may be trimmed or suctioned from around the neck and chin to improve the contour. The underlying muscle and membrane are tightened and the skin is pulled back, and the excess removed. Stitches secure the layers of tissue and close the incisions. Metal clips may be used on the scalp.
    Side Effects: Swelling, bruising, numbness, skin tenderness, dryness, and tightness
    Potential Risks: Infection, bleeding, poor healing, injury to nerves that control facial muscles, excessive scarring, and changes in the hairline
    Recovery Time: Back to work in 2-3 weeks. More strenuous activity in 2-6 weeks

    Eyelid Surgery (Blepharoplasty)

    Description: Local or general anesthesia is administered. Incisions are made in the creases of the upper lids and just below the lashes in the lower lids. The incisions may extend into the crow's feet or laugh lines at the outer corners of the eyes. The skin is separated from underlying fatty tissue. Muscle and excess fat are removed and sagging skin and muscles are trimmed. The incisions are then closed with very fine sutures.
    Side Effects: Temporary discomfort, eyelid tightness, swelling, bruising, dryness, tearing, itching, and sensitivity to light
    Potential Risks: Blurred or double vision, infection, bleeding, dry eyes, asymmetrical healing or scarring, difficulty closing eyes, and blindness
    Recovery Time: Return to doctor's office 5-7 days after surgery; limit outdoor activity for 7-10 days.

    Below the Neck

    Breast Augmentation (Augmentation Mammoplasty)

    Description: General anesthesia is administered. An incision is made in the crease where the breast meets the chest, around the areola, or in the armpit. The breast tissue is lifted to create a pocket where the breast implant is placed, either directly behind the breast tissue or behind the chest muscle. Tubes may be temporarily placed for drainage and the incision is closed with small sutures.
    Side Effects: Soreness, skin wrinkling, swelling, changes in nipple sensitivity, bruising, and altered mammographic appearance
    Potential Risks: Bleeding, infection, thick wide scars, implant rupture or deflation, unevenly positioned nipples, and loss of sensation in breasts or nipples
    Recovery Time: Recovery time is 1-2 weeks. Final results may not be seen until six months to a year after surgery.

    Tummy Tuck (Abdominoplasty)

    Description: General anesthesia is administered. An incision is made in the lower abdomen (just above the pubic bone) from hipbone to hipbone, and another small incision is made to free the navel from surrounding tissue. The skin from the abdominal wall is separated all the way up to the ribs, and the underlying abdominal muscles are tightened by pulling them close together and stitching them into their new position. This provides a firmer abdominal wall and narrows the waistline. The skin flap is stretched down and extra skin is removed. A new hole is cut for the navel, which is stitched in place. Finally, the incisions are closed with stitches, dressings are applied, and a temporary tube may be inserted to drain excess fluid from the surgical site.
    Side Effects: Swelling, bruising, and discomfort
    Potential Risks: Bleeding, infection, blood clots, and poor healing or scarring
    Recovery Time: Back to work in 2-4 weeks. Strenuous activity in several weeks. Fading of scars in 9+ months.

    Liposuction (Lipoplasty)

    Description: Local or general anesthesia is administered. A small incision is made in the skin and a narrow tube, called a cannula, is inserted through the incision to vacuum the fat layer that lies deep beneath the skin. The cannula is pushed and pulled through the fat layer, breaking up the fat cells and suctioning them out. More than one site may be treated during the surgery. Intravenous fluids are administered to replace the fluid that is being lost along with the fat. The incisions are closed and temporary drainage tubes are sometimes inserted to drain fluid that accumulates at the surgery site. After surgery, some patients are fitted with a snug elastic garment to wear during recovery.
    Side Effects: Swelling, bruising, numbness, soreness, and burning sensation
    Potential Risks: Infection, bleeding, excessive fluid loss leading to shock, asymmetry, lumpiness, rippling, bagginess, or pigmentation changes of the skin; and fluid retention
    Recovery Time: Back to work in 1-2 weeks. It can take several weeks or months to see full results.

    RESOURCES

    American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery http://www.cosmeticsurgery.org/

    American Board of Plastic Surgery http://www.abplsurg.org/

    American Society of Plastic Surgeons http://www.plasticsurgery.org/

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    The Canadian Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery http://www.csaps.ca/

    The Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons http://www.plasticsurgery.ca/

    References

    Breast augmentation. American Society of Plastic Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.plasticsurgery.org/Cosmetic-Procedures/Breast-Augmentation.html. Accessed July 27, 2012.

    Discharge Instructions for Breast Augmentation. Patient Education Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16&topicID=1034. Updated September 2011. Accessed July 27, 2012.

    Discharge Instructions for Eyelid Surgery. Patient Education Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16&topicID=1034. Updated September 2011. Accessed July 27, 2012.

    Discharge Instructions for Liposuction. Patient Education Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16&topicID=1034. Updated September 2011. Accessed July 27, 2012.

    Discharge Instructions for Rhinoplasty. Patient Education Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16&topicID=1034. Updated September 2011. Accessed July 27, 2012.

    Facelift surgery. American Society of Plastic Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.plasticsurgery.org/cosmetic-procedures/facelift.html?sub=What%20to%20expect%20during%20your%20facelift%20consultation#content. Accessed July 27, 2012.

    Liposuction procedure. American Society of Plastic Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.plasticsurgery.org/cosmetic-procedures/liposuction.html#content. Accessed July 27, 2012.

    Tummy tuck. American Society of Plastic Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.plasticsurgery.org/Cosmetic-Procedures/Tummy-Tuck.htmlAccessed July 27, 2012.

    What is rhinoplasty surgery? American Society of Plastic Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.plasticsurgery.org/Cosmetic-Procedures/Nose-Surgery-.html. Accessed July 27, 2012.

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