• Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    (Imaging, Magnetic Resonance; MRI Scan; MRI)

    Definition

    In an MRI, magnetic waves are used to make pictures of the inside of the body. Using a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer, an MRI makes two-dimensional and three-dimensional pictures.

    Reasons for Test

    • Diagnose internal injuries or conditions—You can have an MRI to look at any body part, from your head to your toes.
    • Check if medicines or treatments are working
    MRI of Brain Injury
    nucleus factsheet image
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Possible Complications

    MRIs can be harmful if you have metal inside your body, such as joint replacements or a pacemaker. Make sure your doctor knows of any internal metal before the test. Some people may also have an allergic reaction to the contrast dye. Talk to your doctor about any allergies you have or if you have liver or kidney problems. These problems may make it difficult for your body to get rid of the contrast.

    What to Expect

    Prior to Test

    If your doctor prescribes a sedative:
    • Arrange for a ride home.
    • Do not eat or drink for at least four hours before the exam.
    • Take the sedative 1-2 hours before the exam, or as directed.
    At the MRI center:
      You will be asked about the following:
      • Medical and surgical history
      • Pregnancy
      • Allergies
      • Other conditions that you may have—If your MRI involves contrast material, your doctor will ask about the health of your kidneys. There is a risk of complications in people who have kidney disease and receive contrast material.
      You will be asked if you have something in your body that would interfere with the MRI, such as:
      • Pacemaker or implantable defibrillator
      • Neurostimulator
      • Ear implant
      • Metal fragments in your eyes or in any other part of your body (Tell your doctor if your work involves metal filings or particles.)
      • Implanted port device, such as an insulin pump
      • Metal plate, pins, screws, or surgical staples
      • Metal clips from aneurysm repair
      • Retained bullets
      • Any other large metal objects in your body (Tooth fillings and braces are usually fine.)
    • You will be asked to remove any metal objects (such as, jewelry, hearing aids, glasses).
    • You will also be asked to remove all medicine skin patches (such as, Duragesic patch). They may contain metal elements and cause skin burns.
    • An x-ray may be taken to check for any metal objects in your body.
    You may be:
    • Given ear plugs or headphones (The MRI machine makes a loud banging noise.)
    • Given an injection of contrast dye into your vein
    • Allowed to have a family member or friend with you during the test

    Description of Test

    You will lie very still on a sliding table. Depending on your condition, you may have monitors to track your pulse, heart rate, and breathing. The table will slide into a narrow, enclosed cylinder. In some machines, the sides are open, so you can look out into the room.
    If a contrast dye is used, a small IV needle is inserted into your hand or arm before you slide into the machine. First, a saline solution is dripped into your vein to prevent clotting. Then, the dye is injected. You might have an allergic reaction to the dye, but this is rare.
    The technician will leave the room. Through the intercom, the technician will give you directions, such as to hold your breath. You can talk to the technician through this intercom as well. The technician will take the pictures. When the exam is done, you will slide out of the machine. If you have an IV needle, it will be removed.
    If you are claustrophobic or unable to lie on a flat table, there are open MRI machines available. They allow you to have the test done without being put in a narrow cylinder. There are also MRI machines that allow a patient to be in a sitting position. This may be important for patients with concerns, like a painful back.

    After Test

    You will be asked to wait at the facility while the images are examined. The technician may need more images.
    If you took a sedative, do not drive, operate machinery, or make important decisions until it wears off completely.
    If you are breastfeeding and receive a contrast dye, you and your doctor should discuss when you should resume breastfeeding. Information available has not found any ill effects to the baby of a breastfeeding mother who has had contrast dye.

    How Long Will It Take?

    40-90 minutes

    Will It Hurt?

    The exam is painless. If you have dye injected, there may be stinging when the IV needle is inserted. You may also feel a slight cooling sensation as the dye is injected.
    If you have a fear of enclosed spaces, the exam may be very hard for you. Your doctor may have you take a sedative. You can also ask your doctor about an open MRI, which is larger and has openings on all sides.

    Results

    After the exam, a radiologist will analyze the images and send a report to your doctor. Your doctor will talk to you about the results and any further tests or treatment.

    Call Your Doctor

    After the test, call your doctor if any of the following occurs:
    • Worsening of symptoms
    • Any allergic or abnormal symptoms, like getting a rash or swelling if you were injected with contrast dye

    RESOURCES

    United States National Library of Medicine http://www.nlm.nih.gov

    RadiologyInfo http://www.radiologyinfo.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

    Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

    References

    Administration of contrast medium to nursing mothers. American College of Radiology website. Available at http://www.acr.org/MainMenuCategories/about%5Fus/committees/gpr-srp/AdministrationofContrastMediumtoNursingMothersDoc1.aspx. Accessed September 16, 2009.

    Gould TA. How MRI works. How Stuff Works website. Available at: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/mri.htm/printable. Accessed July 22, 2008.

    Hailey D. Open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. Issues Emerg Health Technol. 2006 Nov;(92):1-4.

    Kanal E, Barkovich A.J., et al. ACR Guidance Document for Safe MR Practices: 2007. AJR 2007; 188:1-27

    Kuehn BM. FDA warning: remove drug patches before MRI to prevent burns to skin. JAMA. 2009 Apr 1;301(13):1328.

    MRI of the Body (Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis). RadiologyInfo.org website. Available at: http://radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=bodymr. Updated March 2010. Accessed November 12, 2010.

    University of Iowa, Department of Radiology website. Available at: http://www.healthcare.uiowa.edu/radiology. Accessed October 14, 2005.

    1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: US Food and Drug Administration. New warnings required on use of gadolinium-based contrast agents. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm225286.htm . Updated September 9, 2010. Accessed September 10, 2010.

    Revision Information

  • Join WellZones today.

    Make a Change For LifeLearn more

    Wellmont LiveWell is creating a new tradition of wellness in the mountains by providing individuals with tools and encouragement to live healthier lifestyles.

  • HeartSHAPE Spotlight

    At risk for a heart attack? Learn more

    Fight heart disease early and prevent heart attacks with HeartSHAPE® - a painless, non-invasive test that takes pictures of your heart to scan for early-stage coronary disease.

  • Calories and Energy Needs

    Calorie NeedsLearn more

    How many calories do you need to eat each day to maintain your weight and fuel your physical activity? Enter a few of your stats into this calculator to find out.

  • Ideal Body Weight

    Ideal Body WeightLearn more

    Using body mass index as a reference, this calculator determines your ideal body weight range. All you need to do is enter your height.

  • Body Mass Index

    Body Mass IndexLearn more

    This tool considers your height and weight to assess your weight status.


  • Can we help answer your questions?

    Wellmont Nurse Connection is your resource for valuable health information any time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Speak to a Nurse any time, day or night, at (423) 723-6877 or toll-free at 1-877-230-NURSE.