• Angiodysplasia of the Colon

    (Colonic Angiodysplasia, Arteriovenous Malformations [AVM] of the Colon)

    Definition

    Angiodysplasia of the colon occurs when blood vessels in the colon enlarge. They may become fragile and result in occasional bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
    Normal Anatomy of the Intestines
    Normal Anatomy of the Large and Small Intestine
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Causes

    Angiodysplasia of the colon is caused by dilated connections between veins and capillaries or arteries in the large intestine (colon).

    Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your risk of angiodysplasia of the colon include:
    • Increasing age
    • Excessive or abnormal contractions of the colon
    • Injury to the GI tract
    • Heart problems
    • Kidney problems
    • Lung problems
    • von Willebrand's disease—a disorder of the blood
    • Blood vessel problems

    Symptoms

    Symptoms of angiodysplasia of the colon may include:
    • Dark, tarry stools
    • Bleeding from the rectum
    • Anemia
    • Weakness
    • Fatigue
    • Shortness of breath

    Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
    Your bodily fluids and waste may be tested. This can be done with:
    • Blood tests
    • Stool tests
    Your internal structures may need to be viewed. This can be done with:

    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment may not be necessary, since about 90% of cases of angiodysplasia of the colon stop bleeding on their own. Treatment options include the following:

    Colonoscopy

    Your doctor can often treat tissues with heat to seal bleeding blood vessels during a colonoscopy.

    Angiography

    The blood supply to the bleeding area can be clotted through angiography.

    Medical Therapy

    Hormonal therapy with estrogen can be helpful for some causes.
    Medications called somatostatin analogs may be used to prevent bleeding in some people.

    Surgery

    Surgery to remove the affected area of the colon may sometimes be necessary.

    Prevention

    There are no current guidelines to prevent angiodysplasia of the colon.

    RESOURCES

    AGS Foundation for Health in Aging http://www.healthinaging.org

    National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Association of Gastroenterology http://www.cag-acg.org

    Canadian Digestive Health Foundation http://www.cdhf.ca

    References

    American Gastroenterological Association. AGA guideline: Evaluation and management of occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:197.

    Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 2, 2014. Accessed June 16, 2014.

    6/19/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Jackson CS, Gerson LB. Management of gastrointestinal angiodysplastic lesions (GIADs): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(4):474-483.

    Revision Information

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