• Apoplexy

    Definition

    Apoplexy is bleeding into a cavity or organ. There are various forms of apoplexy, including:
    • Adrenal apoplexy—bleeding into adrenal glands
    • Pituitary apoplexy—bleeding into the pituitary gland
    Pituitary Gland
    Pituitary Gland Male
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Causes

    Apoplexy may be caused by:
    • Tumor growth
    • Hormonal imbalance
    • Blood clot
    • Acute illness
    • Drastic changes in blood volume or blood pressure
    • Blood clotting disorders

    Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your chances of apoplexy include:
    • Hormonal insufficiency
    • Previous surgery
    • Bleeding disorders
    • Injury
    • Severe blood loss during childbirth—Sheehan's syndrome

    Symptoms

    Symptoms may include:
    • Headache
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Loss of appetite
    • Weight loss
    • Abdominal pain
    • Diarrhea
    • Bluish skin color
    • Fever
    • Loss of vision
    • Double vision
    • Confusion
    • Pain
    • Fatigue

    Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
    Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
    • Blood tests
    • Urine tests
    Imaging tests assess bodily structures. These may include:

    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Initial treatment will be done to stabilize you. After you have been stabilized, treatment options will be chosen based on the cause and location of your apoplexy. Options include:
    • Medications—to correct hormonal imbalances
    • Surgery—tumor removal if the tumor is the cause

    Prevention

    There are no current guidelines to prevent apoplexy.

    RESOURCES

    Hormone Health Network—Endocrine Society http://www.hormone.org

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Institute for Health Information https://www.cihi.ca

    Canadian Institutes of Health Research http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca

    References

    Pituitary apoplexy . UCLA Health System website. Available at: http://pituitary.ucla.edu/pituitary-apoplexy. Accessed October 8, 2013.

    Revision Information

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