19343 Health Library | Health and Wellness | Wellmont Health System
  • Risk Factors for Depression

    It is possible to develop depression with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing depression. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.

    Family History of Mental Illness

    People with a family history of mood disorders tend to be at increased risk of developing depression.

    Chronic Physical or Mental Disorders

    In recent years, researchers have found that physical changes in the body can be accompanied by mental changes. Chronic conditions (eg, stroke , heart attack , cancer, HIV/AIDS , Parkinson’s disease , kidney disease, type 2 diabetes ) can increase the risk of depression. Chronic pain is also known to be associated with depression.
    A history of one or more previous episodes of depression significantly increases the risk of another episode.

    Major Life Changes and Stress

    A stressful change in life can trigger a depressive episode. Stressful events may include a serious loss, a difficult relationship, trauma, or financial problems.

    Little or No Social Support

    Having few or no supportive relationships can increase the risk of depression in both men and women. However, rates of depression have been found to be higher in women who describe themselves as isolated and are at home with young children compared to women who are working or have a supportive social network. In many cases, lacking healthy social networks has been found to precede the onset of depression.

    Psychological Factors

    Certain psychological factors put people at risk for depression. People who have low self-esteem, are pessimistic, or are readily overwhelmed by stress may be prone to depression.
    Other psychological traits, such as perfectionism and sensitivity to loss and rejection, may increase a person’s risk for depression. Depression is also more common in people with chronic anxiety disorders, as well as certain personality disorders.

    Low Socioeconomic Status

    Being in a low socioeconomic group is a risk factor for depression. This may be due to factors such as perceived low social status, cultural factors, financial problems, stressful environments, social isolation, and greater daily stress.

    Female Gender

    Women experience depression about twice as often as men. Hormonal factors may contribute to the increased rate of depression in women, particularly during premenstrual changes, pregnancy, miscarriage , postpartum period, and menopause . Many women face additional stresses, such as having responsibilities at work and home and being the primary caretaker for children and aging parents.

    Age

    The elderly are at a particularly high risk for depression. They are often not treated or inappropriately treated for their symptoms. Depression is a disorder that can occur at any age and needs proper treatment.

    Race/Ethnicity

    African Americans are less likely than whites to develop depression. But, when they do, it is often more chronic and severe. African Americans are also less likely to get treatment for depression.

    Sleep Disorders

    Chronic sleep problems, like insomnia , are strongly associated with depression and require treatment.

    Medications

    Certain medicines have been implicated in depression, including:
    • Pain relievers
    • Sedatives
    • Sleeping pills
    • Steroids
    • Seizure drugs

    References

    Depression. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ . Updated July 19, 2012. Accessed July 30, 2012.

    Depression. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-easy-to-read/depression-trifold.pdf . Accessed July 30, 2012.

    Depression (mild to moderate). EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated July 25, 2012. Accessed July 30, 2012.

    Ellison CG, Flannelly KJ. Religious involvement and risk of major depression in a prospective nationwide study of African American adults. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197(8):568-573.

    Williams DR, Gonzalez HM, Neighbors H, et al. Prevalence and distribution of major depressive disorder in African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and Non-Hispanic Whites. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:305-315.

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