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  • Symptoms of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

    The Kidney and Its Main Blood Vessels
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    As kidney failure progresses, some or all of the following signs and symptoms may develop:
    • Loss of appetite
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Fatigue
    • Weight loss
    • Itchy skin
    • Confusion
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Swelling throughout the body
    • Low urine output
    • Generalized weakness
    • Multiple bruises
    • Frequent infections
    • Numbness and tingling in the extremities
    • Irritability
    • Decreased libido
    • Menstrual irregularities
    • Constipation
    • Diarrhea
    • Muscle cramps and twitches
    • Shortness of breath
    • Pericarditis
    • High blood pressure
    • Weak, brittle bones
    • Yellowish-brownish skin tone
    • Easy bruising of the skin
    • Headache
    • Frequent hiccups
    If kidney failure is untreated, the accumulated waste products and fluid can result in:
    • Coma
    • Seizures
    • Death

    References

    Brenner, BM et al. Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2011.

    Conn's Current Therapy 2001 . 53rd ed. WB Saunders Company; 2001.

    Ferri, Fred, ed. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2010. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier, 2009.

    Goldman L, Ausiello D., eds. Cecil Textbook of Internal Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2008.

    National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/ .

    National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/ .

    Rakel, R. Textbook of Family Medicine 2007. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, 2009.

    Rakel, RE, Bope, ET Conn's Current Therapy. 60th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, 2009.

    Yu HT. Progression of Chronic Renal Failure Arch Int Med. 2003;163:1417-1429.

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