• Risk Factors for Kidney Stones

    A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
    It is possible to develop kidney stones with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing kidney stones. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
    • Diet rich in meat, sodium, oxalate, and tomatoes
    • Low fluid intake
    • Increased fluid loss in hot weather
    • High intake of grapefruit juice
    • Dehydration
    • Long periods of inactivity
    • Being overweight
    • Fasting
    • 20-40
    • Men are 4-5 times more likely to develop calcium or uric acid stones
    • Women are more likely to develop struvite stones
    • Family members who have had kidney stones or gout
    • Caucasians and Asians are more likely to develop stone disease than African Americans, Native Americans, and people from Africa and the Middle East.
    • Antacids containing silicates
    • Anticonvulsants: topiramate , felbamate , zonisamide
    • Decongestants: guaifenesin , ephedrine
    • Some diuretics (such as triamterene )
    • Some steroids
    • Thyroid medications
    • Some chemotherapy drugs
    • Some drugs used to treat HIV (such as indinavir )
    • Sedentary jobs
    • Higher socioeconomic class


    Krause’s Food, Nutrition, and Diet Therapy. 10th ed. WB Saunders; 2000.

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/ .

    Parmar MS: Kidney stones. Brit Med J. 2004;328:1120-1124.

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