• Conditions InDepth: Obesity

    Overweight is defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to 25. Obesity is defined as having a body mass index [BMI] greater than or equal to 30. In children, being overweight or obese is based on being above normal ranges on growth charts. Being overweight or obese occurs when the amount of calories you take in is consistently greater than the number of calories you use during activity and basic bodily functions.
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are over 1.4 billion overweight adults and about 500 million obese adults worldwide. And these numbers are expected to rise. In the US, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reports that an estimated 70% of adults are either overweight or obese.. American children and teens are also affected. An estimated 17% of children and young adults aged 2-19 are obese.

    Complications of Obesity

    Being obese can increase your risk of early death. For example, being overweight or obese can shorten life expectancy.
    Other complications of untreated obesity include:
    What are the risk factors for obesity?What are the symptoms of obesity?How is obesity diagnosed?What are the treatments for obesity?Are there screening tests for obesity?How can I reduce my risk of obesity?What questions should I ask my doctor?Where can I get more information about obesity?

    References

    Obesity in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated August 16, 2012. Accessed August 28, 2012.

    Obesity in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated July 25, 2012. Accessed August 28, 2012.

    August GP, Caprio S, Fennoy I, et al. Prevention and Treatment of Pediatric Obesity: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline Based on Expert Opinion. J Clin Endoc Met. 2008;93:4576-99.

    Barlow SE, and Expert Committee: Expert Committee Recommendations Regarding the Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Summary Report. Pediatrics. 2007;120(Suppl)S164-S192).

    Mechanick JI, Kushner RF, Sugerman HJ et al: American Assocaition of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Perioperative Nautritional, Metabolic, and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient. Endocrine Practice. 14(Suppl 1) July/August 2008.

    Snow V, Barry P, Fitteman N, Qaseem A et al: Pharmacologic and Surgical Management of Obesity in Primary Care: A Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:525-31.

    American Obesity Association website. Available at: http://www.obesity.org/ .

    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA . 2002;288:1723-1727.

    Kasper DL, Harrison TR. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998.

    Obesity and overweight. World Health Organization website. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html . Updated May 2012. Accessed August 27, 2012.

    Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999-2000. JAMA . 2002;288:1728-1732.

    Trends. Center for Disease Control website. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/index.htm . Updated July 2008. Accessed April 16, 2009.

    Who is at risk for overwegiht and obesity. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/atrisk.html . Accessed August 28, 2012.

    9/30/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Samuels-Kalow ME, Funai EF, Buhimschi C, et al. Prepregnancy body mass index, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and long-term maternal mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:490.e1-6. Epub 2007 Aug 21.

    12/2/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, et al. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2105-2120.

    2/5/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Subak L, Wing R, Smith West D, et al. Weight loss to treat urinary incontinence in overweight and obese women. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:481-490.

    4/16/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Neovius M, Sundström J, Rasmussen F. Combined effects of overweight and smoking in late adolescence on subsequent mortality: nationwide cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Feb 24;338:b496.

    10/16/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Krul M, van der Wouden JC, Schellevis FG, van Suijlekom-Smit LW, Koes BW. Musculoskeletal problems in overweight and obese children. Ann Fam Med. 2009;7:352-356.

    1/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Shiri R, Karppinen J, Leino-Arjas P, Solovieva S, Viikari-Juntura E. The association between obesity and low back pain: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(2):135-54.

    1/29/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Kuk JL, Ardern CI. Influence of age on the association between various measures of obesity and all-cause mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Sep 15.

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