• Risk Factors for Parkinson’s Disease

    A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
    It is possible to develop Parkinson’s disease with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing Parkinson’s disease. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
    Risk factors include:
    Most people develop Parkinson’s disease after the age of 50 (age of onset ranges from 35-85). It is relatively unusual to develop Parkinson’s disease before the age of 40, although it is certainly possible.
    Men are about 1.5 times more likely than women to develop Parkinson’s disease.
    A number of genes have been associated with Parkinson's disease. People with these abnormal genes may develop Parkinson's disease at a younger age, typically before the age of 50. This type of Parkinson's tends to run in families. However, the vast majority of Parkinson's disease occurs in older individuals (over the age of 60), and the role of genetics in these individuals is less clear.
    Research suggests that blacks and Asians have a slightly lower rate of Parkinson’s disease than whites.
    Exposure to chemicals, such as herbicides and pesticides, is thought to increase your risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. You also have a greater risk of Parkinson’s disease if you live in a rural area, drink well water, or live on a farm (perhaps due to an increased exposure to herbicides and pesticides). People who smoke tobacco or ingest caffeine may have a lower risk of developing Parkinson’s Disease.
    You may have a higher risk of Parkinson's disease if you had certain health conditions, such as:

    References

    Alves G, Forsaa EB, Pedersen KF, et al. Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurology. 2008;255(suppl 5):18-32.

    American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aans.org/ .

    Conn HF, Rakel RE. Conn’s Current Therapy 2002. 54th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2002.

    Dachsel JC, Farrer MJ. LRRK2 and Parkisnon disease. Arch Neurol . 2010;67(5):542-547.

    Kasper DL, Harrison TR. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/ .

    Obeso JA, et al. Missing pieces in the Parkinsons disease puzzle. Nature Medicine . 2010;16:653-661.

    Parkinson's disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated October 27, 2009. Accessed November 16, 2009.

    Parkinson’s Disease Foundation website. Available at: http://www.pdf.org .

    Ropper AH, Samuels MA, "Chapter 39. Degenerative Diseases of the Nervous System" (Chapter). Ropper AH, Samuels MA: Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology, 9e: http://www.accessmedicine.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/content.aspx?aID=3639002.

    Rowland LP, Merritt HH. Merritt's Neurology . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

    11/16/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Spinks A, Wasiak J, Bernath V, Villaneuva E. Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD002851.

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