• Tachycardia

    (Ventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular Tachycardia; Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia)

    Definition

    Tachycardia is a rapid heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute. Sinus tachycardia, from the heart's sinus node, is a normal response to exercise, illness, or stress.
    There are several types of abnormal tachycardias or arrhythmias . These can come from two places:
    • Atria (the two smaller chambers on the top of the heart)—called supraventricular tachycardias
    • Ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart)—called ventricular tachycardia
    This condition can be life-threatening. But, it can be treated. If you think you or someone you know has this condition, get emergency help.
    Electrical System and Chambers of the Heart
    Nucleus fact sheet image
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Causes

    This condition is caused by abnormal electrical impulses that control the heart.

    Risk Factors

    These factors increase your chance of having tachycardia. Tell your doctor if you have any of the following:
    • Heart disease, especially a prior heart attack
    • Cardiomyopathy —damage to the muscle wall of the lower chambers of the heart
    • Electrolyte abnormalities—too much or too little calcium, sodium, magnesium, and potassium in the blood
    • Myocardial ischemia—insufficient blood flow to heart muscle tissue
    • Hypoxemia—not enough oxygen in the blood
    • Acidosis—too much acid in the body’s fluids

    Symptoms

    If you have any of these symptoms do not assume it is due to this condition. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. Tell your doctor if you have any of these:
    • Heart palpitations
    • Fast heart rate
    • Dizziness
    • Lightheadedness
    • Fainting or near fainting
    • Chest pain
    • Shortness of breath

    Diagnosis

      Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. You will also have an exam. Tests may include the following:
      • Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) —a test that records the heart’s activity by measuring electrical currents through the heart muscle
      • Holter monitor or event monitor —an ambulatory monitor to record your heart rhythm that can be worn from 1-30 days to detect arrhythmias and correlate symptoms with the heart rhythm
      • Exercise test —particularly if the symptoms occur during physical activity
      • Electrophysiology study —an invasive test where monitoring wires are placed inside the heart and the heart's conduction system is tested directly
      • Cardiac catheterization —a tube-like instrument inserted into the heart through a vein or artery (usually in the arm or leg) to detect problems with the heart and its blood supply

    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:

    Medications

    The following medications are used to treat this condition:
    • Beta-blockers (eg, atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol)
    • Calcium channel blockers (eg, diltiazem, verapamil)
    • Anti-arrhythmics, such as flecainide (Ambocor), procainamide (Procanbid), amiodarone (Cordarone), and sotalol (Betapace)

    Ablation

    Ablation is done during an electrophysiology study. Radiofrequency energy or cold energy is used to destroy the abnormality and possibly cure the problem.

    Cardioverison

    An electric shock is applied to the heart to stop the abnormal rhythm. This treatment may be done for life-threatening rhythms, such as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation . It is also done for milder arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation .

    Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    An ICD can be surgically placed into your body. This device monitors your heartbeat. It can apply a shock to correct an irregular heartbeat.
    Device to Correct Tachycardia
    Nucleus Image
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Prevention

    Reducing risk of heart disease is the best way you can prevent this condition. Take the following steps:

    RESOURCES

    American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org

    Heart Rhythm Society http://www.hrsonline.org/

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca/home/index%5Fe.aspx

    Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com/

    References

    Arrhythmia prevention. Heart Rhythm Society website. Available at: http://www.hrspatients.org/patients/risk%5Ffactors/default.asp . Accessed April 19, 2007.

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/270.xml . Accessed April 19, 2007.

    Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://dynamed101.epnet.com/Detail.aspx?id=113613 . Accessed April 19, 2007.

    Ventricular tachycardia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://dynamed102.epnet.com/Detail.aspx?id=115268 . Accessed April 19, 2007.

    What are arrhythmias? American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=560 . Accessed April 19, 2007.

    Revision Information

  • Join WellZones today.

    Make a Change For LifeLearn more

    Wellmont LiveWell is creating a new tradition of wellness in the mountains by providing individuals with tools and encouragement to live healthier lifestyles.

  • HeartSHAPE Spotlight

    At risk for a heart attack? Learn more

    Fight heart disease early and prevent heart attacks with HeartSHAPE® - a painless, non-invasive test that takes pictures of your heart to scan for early-stage coronary disease.

  • Calories and Energy Needs

    Calorie NeedsLearn more

    How many calories do you need to eat each day to maintain your weight and fuel your physical activity? Enter a few of your stats into this calculator to find out.

  • Ideal Body Weight

    Ideal Body WeightLearn more

    Using body mass index as a reference, this calculator determines your ideal body weight range. All you need to do is enter your height.

  • Body Mass Index

    Body Mass IndexLearn more

    This tool considers your height and weight to assess your weight status.


  • Can we help answer your questions?

    Wellmont Nurse Connection is your resource for valuable health information any time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Speak to a Nurse any time, day or night, at (423) 723-6877 or toll-free at 1-877-230-NURSE.