• Screening for Type 2 Diabetes

    The purpose of screening is early diagnosis and treatment. Screening tests are usually administered to people without current symptoms, but who may be at high risk for certain diseases or conditions.

    Screening Guidelines

    Prediabetes is characterized by high blood glucose levels that are not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. But the condition often progresses to type 2 diabetes .
    In order to detect prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the following guidelines:
      Screen adults of any age who are overweight or obese with one or more of these risk factors:
      • First-degree relative with diabetes
      • Low HDL (good) cholesterol level and high triglycerides levels
      • High blood pressure
      • History of diabetes during pregnancy ( gestational diabetes ) or having a baby weighing over nine pounds (4.1 kg)
      • Having polycystic ovary syndrome or other conditions associated with insulin resistance
      • Being inactive
      • History of cardiovascular disease
      • Belonging to an at-risk ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, Native American, Hispanic American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander)
      • Previous blood test results that show hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at 5.7% or higher, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose
    • Screen adults aged 45 and older with or without risk factors
    • Screen overweight children aged 10 years and older who have two or more of the following risk factors:
      • Family history of diabetes
      • Mother with diabetes or gestational diabetes
      • Signs of insulin resistance or having a condition associated with insulin resistance
      • At-risk ethnic background
    If the results are normal for both adults and children, the ADA recommends screening again in three years.

    Screening Tests

    HbA1c Test
    The HbA1c test is a good indicator of your average blood glucose levels over the past 2-4 months. This test usually does not require any dietary restrictions.
    Diagnosis HbA1c Level
    Prediabetes 5.7%-6.4%
    Diabetes 6.5% or higher
    Fasting Plasma Glucose
    With this blood test, you need to fast (not eat anything) for at least eight hours before the test.
    Diagnosis Fasting Plasma Glucose Level
    Prediabetes 100-125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L)
    Diabetes 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher
    Two-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
    After fasting overnight, the doctor tests your glucose level. You are then asked to drink 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water. Two hours later, the doctor tests your glucose level again.
    Diagnosis Glucose Levels
    Prediabetes 140-199 mg/dL (7.8-11 mmol/L)
    Diabetes 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher

    References

    Diabetes mellitus type 2. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ . Updated August 2, 2012. Accessed December 31, 2012.

    Diabetes statistics. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/?loc=DropDownDB-stats . Accessed December 31, 2012.

    Glucose. Lab Tests Online website. Available at: http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/glucose/tab/test . Updated March 23, 2012. Accessed December 31, 2012.

    Prediabetes. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ . Updated August 2, 2012. Accessed December 31, 2012.

    2/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2010. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(suppl 1:S11-61).

    2/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(suppl 1:S62-69).

    Revision Information

  • Join WellZones today.

    Make a Change For LifeLearn more

    Wellmont LiveWell is creating a new tradition of wellness in the mountains by providing individuals with tools and encouragement to live healthier lifestyles.

  • HeartSHAPE Spotlight

    At risk for a heart attack? Learn more

    Fight heart disease early and prevent heart attacks with HeartSHAPE® - a painless, non-invasive test that takes pictures of your heart to scan for early-stage coronary disease.

  • Calories and Energy Needs

    Calorie NeedsLearn more

    How many calories do you need to eat each day to maintain your weight and fuel your physical activity? Enter a few of your stats into this calculator to find out.

  • Ideal Body Weight

    Ideal Body WeightLearn more

    Using body mass index as a reference, this calculator determines your ideal body weight range. All you need to do is enter your height.

  • Body Mass Index

    Body Mass IndexLearn more

    This tool considers your height and weight to assess your weight status.


  • Can we help answer your questions?

    Wellmont Nurse Connection is your resource for valuable health information any time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Speak to a Nurse any time, day or night, at (423) 723-6877 or toll-free at 1-877-230-NURSE.