• Choline

    choline-containing foods Choline is not a vitamin or a mineral, but it is an essential nutrient. Although the body can create choline in small amounts, it cannot make enough to maintain health. Choline must be consumed in the diet.
    Choline is a component of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in functions such as muscle movement, and memory formation.
    Most of the body's choline is found in phospholipids, which are fat molecules. The most common of these is phosphatidylcholine, better known as lecithin.


    Choline's functions include:
    • Helping to maintain the structure of the cell membrane
    • Aiding in the transmission of nerve impulses
    • Playing a role in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine (elevated levels of homocysteine have been associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease)
    • Helping to transport fat and cholesterol out of the liver

    Dietary Intake

    Age group Adequate intake
    Females Males
    0-6 months 125 mg 125 mg
    7-12 months 150 mg 150 mg
    1-3 years 200 mg 200 mg
    4-8 years 250 mg 250 mg
    9-13 years 375 mg 375 mg
    14-18 years 400 mg 550 mg
    19 and older 425 mg 550 mg
    Pregnant, all ages 450 mg n/a
    Lactating, all ages 550 mg n/a

    Choline Deficiency

    Although the body can make choline, it cannot make enough to maintain proper health and functioning. Therefore, it is possible for your choline levels to become too low if your diet does not contain enough. Because choline is essential for the transport of fat from the liver, deficiency symptoms include:
    • Fatty accumulation in the liver, called "fatty" liver
    • Liver damage

    Choline Toxicity

    The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for choline from dietary sources and supplements combined is:
    Age group Upper intake
    Females Males
    0-6 months Undetermined Undetermined
    7-12 months Undetermined Undetermined
    1-3 years 1000 mg 1000 mg
    4-8 years 1000 mg 1000 mg
    9-13 years 2000 mg 2000 mg
    14-18 years 3000 mg 3000 mg
    19 and older 3500 mg 3500 mg
    Symptoms of choline toxicity include:
    • Fishy body odor
    • Vomiting
    • Increased salivation
    • Increased sweating
    • Hypotensive effect (lowering blood pressure)

    Major Food Sources

    Very little information is available on the choline content of foods; however, some good sources of choline include:
    • Beef liver
    • Wheat germ
    • Egg
    • Atlantic cod
    • Brussels sprouts
    • Broccoli
    • Shrimp
    • Salmon
    • Milk
    • Peanut butter
    • Milk chocolate

    Health Implications

    Populations at Risk for Choline Deficiency
    The following populations may be at risk for a choline deficiency and may benefit from a supplement:
    • Strict vegetarians—A choline deficiency may result if you do not eat animal products, including milk or eggs.
    • Endurance athletes—Studies have shown that some choline may be lost during intense training.
    Choline and Alzheimer's Disease
    Because choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important in learning and memory, it has been studied for a possible role in Alzheimer's disease. Studies have been conducted, but a review of clinical trials found no benefit of supplementation with lecithin in the treatment of people with dementia.

    Tips for Increasing Your Choline Intake

    To help increase your intake of choline:
    • At breakfast, spread a little peanut butter on your bagel or toast in place of butter or cream cheese.
    • Hard boil an egg and grate it onto a salad at lunchtime.
    • For dinner, drink a glass of milk instead of soda.
    • Try sprinkling granular lecithin on top of your cereal, oatmeal, salad, or stir-fry. Just a few teaspoons is all you need.
    • If you are taking a multivitamin/mineral supplement, make sure that it contains choline or lecithin.


    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics http://www.eatright.org/

    American Society for Nutrition http://www.nutrition.org/


    Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca/

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/


    Choline. Complementary Therapies . March 2002.

    Dietary Reference Intakes for Folate, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B12, Panthothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences USA. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 1998.

    Dietary reference intakes: vitamins. Institute of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.iom.edu/Global/News%20Announcements/~/media/474B28C39EA34C43A60A6D42CCE07427.ashx. Accessed September 17, 2012.

    Lecithin for dementia and cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2000.

    Micronutrient Information Center: choline. Oregon State University, The Linus Pauling Institute website. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/othernuts/choline/. Updated August 18, 2009. Accessed September 17, 2012.

    Ralf J, Purpura M, et al. Phospholipids and sports performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007;4:5.

    Zeisel SH. Choline: Needed for Normal Development of Memory. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2000;19(5suppl):528S-531S.

    Revision Information

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