• Hantavirus Infection

    (Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome)


    Hantavirus is a serious lung infection.
    Virus Attacking a Cell
    In a viral infection, the virus uses your cells to grow and reproduce, making you ill in the process.
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


    Hantavirus is caused by a virus. It is transmitted when a person comes into contact with rodents that are infected with the virus, or infected rodents' urine or droppings. In the United States, the deer mouse is the rodent most likely to carry hantavirus infection. Hantavirus infection cannot be passed between humans.

    Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your chance of hantavirus infection include:
    • Living near a forest
    • Seeing rodents in your home
    • Having rodents present in a work environment


    Hantavirus infection may cause:
    • Fever
    • Deep muscle aches
    • Severe shortness of breath


    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
    Tests may include blood tests and/or chest x-rays.


    There is no specific treatment for hantavirus infection. Treatment will focus on treating your symptoms, providing breathing support, and making you comfortable.


    The best way to prevent hantavirus infection is to control rodent infestation in and around your home. This involves sealing rodent entry holes or gaps with steel wool, lath metal, or caulk, trapping rodents using snap traps, and cleaning rodent food sources and nesting sites. In addition, take the following precautions when cleaning rodent-infested areas:
    • Wear rubber, latex, vinyl, or nitrile gloves.
    • Do not vacuum or sweep the area, since this may cause the virus to get into the air.
    • Spaces to be cleaned should be ventilated with fresh air by opening doors and windows for at least 30 minutes. Leave the area during this airing-out period.
    • Wet contaminated areas with a bleach solution (such as 1-½ cups bleach in 1 gallon water) or household disinfectant.
    • When everything is wet, remove contaminated materials with a damp towel before mopping or sponging the area with the bleach solution or disinfectant.
    • Disinfect gloves with disinfectant or soap and water before taking them off. Then, thoroughly wash hands with soap and water or a waterless alcohol-based rub (such as hand sanitizer) if soap is not available.
    • Spray dead rodents with disinfectant and double-bag them with all cleaning materials.
    • Properly dispose of dead rodents. Contact your health department for disposal methods.
    • More extensive protection should be used by during clean-up of heavy rodent infestations including coveralls (disposable, if possible), rubber boots or disposable shoe covers, protective goggles, rubber, latex, or vinyl gloves, goggles, and an appropriate respiratory protection device.
    It is helpful to be aware of activities that may put you in contact with infected mice, their droppings, and their urine. This may include returning tools to sheds, caring for animals in barns, and sweeping or cleaning building spaces. Farm workers may also be at risk from deer mouse bites. While common house mice have not proven to be major carriers of the virus, deer mice are often found in park areas, even within cities. Follow the precautions above when entering spaces that may be contaminated.


    American Lung Association http://www.lung.org

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov


    Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety http://www.ccohs.ca

    Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca


    Cleaning up after rodents. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/rodents/cleaning/index.html. Updated August 21, 2012. Accessed November 11, 2015.

    Cline BJ, Carver S, Douglass RJ. Relationship of human behavior within outbuildings to potential exposure to Sin Nombre virus in Western Montana. Ecohealth. 2010;7(3):389-393.

    Dizney L, Jones PD, Ruedas LA. Natural history of Sin Nombre virus infection in deer mice in urban parks in Oregon. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46(2):433-441.

    Hantavirus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hps. Updated February 6, 2013. Accessed November 11, 2015.

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115640/Hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome. Updated May 1, 2015. Accessed September 27, 2016.

    Mills JN, Amman BR, Glass GE. Ecology of hantaviruses and their hosts in North America. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10(6):563-574.

    Simpson SQ, Spikes L, Patel S, Faruqi I. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010;24(1):159-173.

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