The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
National Institute of Child Health & Human Development http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/gest%5Fdiabetes/sub2.cfm
United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/pednss/what%5Fis/pednss%5Fhealth%5Findicators.htm
British Columbia Ministry of Health http://bchealthguide.org/kbase/topic/symptom/tw9725/overview.htm
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://sogc.medical.org/
Heiskanen N, Raatikainen K, Heinonen S. Fetal macrosomia—a continuing obstetric challenge.
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The references below are cited on the following website:
Zamorski MA, Biggs WS. Management of suspected fetal macrosomia. American Family Physician website. Available at:
Berard J, Dufour P, Vinatier D, Subtil D, Vanderstichele S, Monnier JC, et al. Fetal macrosomia: risk factors and outcome. A study of the outcome concerning 100 cases >4500 g.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol
Gregory KD, Henry OA, Ramicone E, Chan LS, Platt LD. Maternal and infant complications in high and normal weight infants by method of delivery.
Irion O, Boulvain M. Induction of labour for suspected fetal macrosomia.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Langer O, Berkus MD, Huff RW, Samueloff A. Shoulder dystocia: should the fetus weighing greater than or equal to 4000 grams be delivered by cesarean section?
Am J Obstet Gynecol
Parks DG, Ziel HK. Macrosomia. A proposed indication for primary cesarean section.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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