American Pregnancy Association http://www.americanpregnancy.org/labornbirth/reasonsforacesarean.html
Fairview Health Services http://www.fairview.org/healthlibrary/content/wha%5Fproco%5Fwha.htm
Mayo Clinic http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/c-section/PR00078
British Columbia Ministry of Health http://bchealthguide.org/kbase/topic/special/tn8162/sec1.htm
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://sogc.medical.org/
The references below are cited on the following website: Umbilical cord abnormalities. Quick References and Fact Sheets. March of Dimes website. Available at:
Catanzarite VA et al. The two-vessel cord: how concerned should we be?
. 1997 Apr: 43-54.
Collins JH et al.
Silent Risk: Issues about the Human Umbilical Cord
. 2002 Jun 14.
Cunningham FG et al. Abnormalities of the umbilical cord in:
. 21st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2001.
Dildy GA, Clark SL. Umbilical cord prolapse.
. 1993 Nov: 23–31.
Lee W et al. Vasa previa: prenatal diagnosis, natural evolution, and clinical outcome.
. 2000 Apr;95(4):572–576.
Prolapsed umbilical cord. Women's Health Advisor. University of Michigan Health System website. Available at:
. Accessed July 4, 20.07.
Umbilical cord prolapse. The Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center website. Available at:
Accessed July 4, 2007.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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