• Chronic Renal Failure

    (Chronic Kidney Disease)


    Chronic renal failure is a deficiency in kidney function. Kidneys clean waste from the blood. The waste then passes out of the body in urine.
    Anatomy of the Kidney
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


    Chronic renal failure is often caused by diseases such as:

    Risk Factors

    This condition is more common in people of African American descent.
    Factors that may increase your chance of chronic renal failure include:


    Chronic renal failure may cause:
    • Fatigue
    • Weakness
    • Sleeping problems
    • Weak appetite
    • Nausea
    • Itching
    • Shortness of breath
    • Altered taste
    • Altered mental state


    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
    Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
    Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with utrasound.
    Those who are already at high risk for kidney disease should be tested more frequently so any damage can be diagnosed early. People with kidney disease will be referred to a nephrologist (a doctor who specializes in treating kidney disorders).


    Chronic renal failure cannot be cured. It is possible to slow the progression of kidney damage.
    Treatment may include:
    • Controlling protein in the urine by restricting the amount of protein in the diet or medication
    • Taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists
    • Reducing the use of and the dosages of drugs that may be toxic to the kidneys
    • Managing the complications of chronic renal disease such as fluid overload, high blood phosphate or potassium levels, low blood level of calcium, and anemia
    • Lowering high blood pressure
    • Controlling blood sugar and lipid levels
    • Staying hydrated
    • Controlling salt in the diet
    • Participating in an exercise training program to keep you physically fit and reduce the chance of depression
    • Quitting smoking
    • Undergoing dialysis , a medical process that cleans the blood
    • Having a kidney transplant
    • Counseling for you and your family about dialysis and/or transplant options


    To help reduce your chance of chronic renal failure:
    • Get a physical exam every year that includes a urine test to monitor the health of your kidneys.
    • If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how you can successfully quit.
    • Maintain a healthy weight.
    • Drink water and other fluids to stay hydrated.
    • People who have diabetes, previously known kidney disease, high blood pressure, or are over the age of 60 should be screened regularly for kidney disease.
    • People with a family history of kidney disease should also be screened regularly.


    Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org

    National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org


    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

    The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115336/Chronic-kidney-disease-CKD-in-adults. Updated August 23, 2016. Accessed September 28, 2016.

    Pendse S, Singh AK. Complications of chronic kidney disease: Anemia, mineral metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. Med Clin N Am. 2005;89(3):549-561.

    Snyder S, Pendergraph B. Detection and evaluation of chronic kidney disease. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(9):1739-1746.

    Zandi-Nejod K, Brenner BM. Strategies to retard the progression of chronic renal disease. Med Clin N Am. 2005; 89:489-509.

    8/26/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115336/Chronic-kidney-disease-CKD-in-adults: Heiwe S, Jacobson SH. Exercise training in adults with CKD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;64(3):383-393.

    4/6/2016 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115336/Chronic-kidney-disease-CKD-in-adults: Park H, Adeyemi A, et al. A meta-analytic assessment of the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. J Viral Hepat. 2015 Nov;22(11):897-905.

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