American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
Children's Heart Institute http://www.childrenheartinstitute.org
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Congenital patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Cincinnati Children's website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/p/pda/. Updated November 2012. Accessed November 5, 2014.
Patent ductus arteriosus. Boston Children's Hospital website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/health-topics/conditions/patent-ductus-arteriosus. Accessed November 5, 2014.
Patent ductus arteriosus. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/patent%5Fductus%5Farteriosus.html. Updated February 2012. Accessed November 5, 2014.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/Patent-Ductus-Arteriosus-PDA%5FUCM%5F307032%5FArticle.jsp. Updated May 6, 2014. Accessed November 5, 2014.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115954/Patent-ductus-arteriosus-PDA. Updated March 7, 2016. Accessed September 23, 2016.
What is patent ductus arteriosus? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pda/. Updated September 26, 2011. Accessed November 5, 2014.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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