• Noncancerous Versus Cancerous Tumors

    A tumor is a mass of abnormally dividing cells. There are 2 types of tumors:

    Benign Tumors

    Benign tumors are slow-growing, well-defined tumors that do not spread. In rare cases, untreated benign tumors may be life-threatening if they affect a vital organ. Because they do not invade the surrounding tissue, benign tumors are relatively easy to remove surgically, depending on their location. In some cases, benign tumors may become malignant, though this usually takes a long time (sometimes decades) if it happens at all. Benign tumors generally do not cause death or serious illness unless they are very large (such as some benign ovarian tumors), or if they affect a critical organ that makes it difficult to operate on and remove them (such as tumors in the brain).

    Malignant Tumors

    The term cancer is usually reserved for malignant tumors, which, like benign tumors, are masses of structurally abnormal cells growing uncontrollably. However, they differ in their ability to invade the surrounding tissue and, in many cases, metastasize (spread) to different sites of the body via the blood or lymphatic system. This is one reason why surgical treatment alone for more advanced malignancies is often unsuccessful. Because malignant cells have a tendency to leave their site of origin, surgeons may leave them behind, which may result in new tumors in other locations. Malignancy is often treated by chemotherapy (systematic drugs aimed at killing deposits of cancer cells in sites other than the primary) or by radiation therapy applied over a broader area than that involved by the main tumor itself. To learn more about the process of metastasis, see the Cancerous Cell Growth and Development section of this classroom. Image 1 illustrates the difference between benign and malignant cancer cells.

    benign versus malignant
    Image 1: Benign versus malignant tumors
    How do normal cells grow and develop?How do cancerous cells grow and develop?What is a cancer gene? How do they occur?What causes cancer?What is the epidemiology of cancer?What are the different types of cancer?


    Cancer basics American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-basics/what-is-cancer.html. Updated December 8, 2015. Accessed January 30, 2017.

    Cellular and molecular basis of cancer. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hematology-and-oncology/overview-of-cancer/cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cancer. Updated July 2013. Accessed January 30, 2017.

    Marieb EN. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2nd ed. Redwood City, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc;1992.

    Understanding cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/what-is-cancer. Updated February 9, 2015. Accessed January 30, 2017.

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