• Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Definition

    Mild cognitive impairment–amnestic type (MCI-AT) is mild, repeated memory loss. It lies between the normal memory loss of aging and the more serious conditions of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. MCI-AT only involves problems with memory.
    People with MCI-AT who are over age 65 have a higher chance of developing dementia and Alzheimer's. However, many people with MCI-AT never develop these disorders. Some even return to normal.
    Areas of the Brain
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    Medications

    Researchers are currently studying the effects that several medications may have on slowing cognitive decline. These include:

    Causes

    The causes are not clear. However, genetic factors may be a cause.

    Medications

    Researchers are currently studying the effects that several medications may have on slowing cognitive decline. These include:

    Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your chance of developing MCI-AT include:
    Research also suggests that these may be risk factors for MCI-AT:
    • Smoking
    • Lack of social contact
    • Low educational level
    • Excessive response to stress
    • Poor nutrition and lack of vitamins
    • Exposure to toxins

    Medications

    Researchers are currently studying the effects that several medications may have on slowing cognitive decline. These include:

    Symptoms

    The main symptom is frequent, ongoing memory loss beyond what is normally expected for your age. That means having more than small lapses of memory. If you have MCI-AT, you may:
    • Remember much less of what you have just read or seen than people who have only the normal memory changes of aging
    • Take longer to recall information

    Medications

    Researchers are currently studying the effects that several medications may have on slowing cognitive decline. These include:

    Diagnosis

    The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may also talk with family members and caregivers. Tests may include:
    • Memory and cognitive skill tests
    • Blood tests
    • Lumbar puncture—to test the protective fluid around the brain and spinal cord for possible causes
    Imaging tests take pictures of internal bodily structures. This can be done with:

    Medications

    Researchers are currently studying the effects that several medications may have on slowing cognitive decline. These include:

    Treatment

    Treatment is focused on:
      Preventing, or at least slowing down, further loss of memory and other cognitive abilities using
      • Cognitive intervention
      • Occupational therapy
    • Preventing dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    Medications

    Researchers are currently studying the effects that several medications may have on slowing cognitive decline. These include:

    Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of developing MCI-AT, take these steps:
    • Manage medical conditions, especially high blood pressure
    • Manage psychiatric conditions, such as depression
    • Stay mentally active by doing things like memory exercises, crossword puzzles, reading, and taking classes
    • Get regular exercise
    • Participate in social activities
    • Reduce stress
    • Eat a healthful diet

    RESOURCES

    American Psychiatric Association http://www.psychiatry.org

    National Institute on Aging http://www.nia.nih.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    The Alzheimer Society of Canada http://www.alzheimer.ca

    Seniors Canada http://www.seniors.gc.ca

    References

    Birks J, Flicker L. Donepezil for mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3:CD006104.

    DeKosky ST, Williamson JD, et al. Ginko biloba for prevention of dementia: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300(19):2306-2308.

    Feldman HH, Jacova C. Mild cognitive impairment. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13(8):645-655.

    Gauthier S, Reisberg B, et al. Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet. 2006;367(9518):1262-1270.

    Institute for the Study of Aging and International Longevity Center–USA (March 2001). Achieving and Maintaining Cognitive Vitality With Aging: A Workshop Report. New York, NY.

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113612/Mild-cognitive-impairment-MCI. Updated July 29, 2016. Accessed September 26, 2016.

    National Institute on Aging. 2011-2012 Alzheimer's Disease Progress Report. Available at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/2011-2012-alzheimers-disease-progress-report. Accessed September 5, 2013.

    Petersen RC. Mild cognitive impairment: Current research and clinical implications. Semin Neurol. 2007;27(1):22-31.

    Petersen RC, Roberts RO, et al. Mild cognitive impairment: Ten years later. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(12):1447-1455.

    Petersen RC, Smith GE, et al. Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Archives of Neurology. 1999;56(3):303-308.

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