489750 Health Library | Health and Wellness | Wellmont Health System
  • Clearing the Air for Your Baby

    Image for new baby article Your baby’s body is more active than most adult bodies. Not only does your baby’s body need to support basic life functions, but it is still going through rapid growth and development. Organs like the brain and lungs are changing in ways that will affect the rest of your baby’s life. So it is important for your baby to get the things she needs for healthy development. One of the most important things is oxygen.
    The lungs pull oxygen from the air and into the blood. With healthy lungs and clear air, we can take in a lot of oxygen with every breath. But when the lungs are infected or damaged or the air is contaminated, the amount of oxygen available is very limited. One of the worst culprits of damaged lungs and bad air is secondhand smoke.
    Secondhand smoke is a combination of smoke exhaled from a smoker and the smoke from a burning tip of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe. It is made up of over 250 types of hazardous chemicals. These chemicals irritate the lining of the lungs, cause damage to tissue, and alter lung functions.

    Tiny Lungs, Smoky Air

    Secondhand smoke is harmful for everybody, but is more destructive on the developing lungs and body of a baby. Also, babies inhale more smoke because they breathe at faster rates than adults. As adults we are able to move away if the air is irritating. Babies of course are not able to move away from smoky areas on their own.
    Even small amounts of secondhand smoke can hamper breathing by affecting different parts of your baby’s lungs:
      Bronchioles and bronchi—tubes that allow oxygen to travel from the mouth into the lungs
      • The chemicals in the smoke can cause irritation, swelling, and inflammation in these tubes. This can greatly reduce the size of the path for air; imagine only breathing through a small straw.
    • Alveoli—tiny air sacs at the tip of the lungs that pass oxygen from the lungs to the blood
    • Surfactant—fluid that lines the inside of the lungs, making it easier for the lungs to expand and pass oxygen to the blood
      • Alveoli and surfactant continue to develop after birth. Exposing your baby to secondhand smoke interferes with this development, and may prevent your baby’s lungs from making the right amount of surfactant he needs. Low amounts can affect the ability for your baby’s lungs to expand and contract properly.
    For babies that already have lung problems, these effects can be even more dramatic. This can include babies recovering from previous infections or premature babies with underdeveloped lungs. Secondhand smoke has also been linked to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and a higher chance of ear infections.

    Sickness in the Smoke

    When your baby’s lungs are affected by secondhand smoke, it can put your baby at a higher risk for:
    If your baby has asthma, she may have an increased number and severity of asthma attacks. Exposure to secondhand smoke may also cause your child to have problems sleeping.
    All of these not only result in an unhappy baby but can also decrease the amount of oxygen delivered to the lungs. When it happens frequently it can interfere with your baby’s developing body. It can also lead to more time spent in a hospital and under intensive care.
    Repeated or severe illnesses can also lead to scarring in the lungs. For babies, the scarring can slow or halt lung development. Lung damage can also cause extra stress and damage to the heart.

    Clear the Air

    The chemicals in secondhand smoke are so tiny that they cannot be effectively cleaned out with filters. These chemicals easily travel through a house helped by fans, ventilation, heat systems, and air conditioning. And opening a window does very little to decrease the amount of smoke exposure. So how can you make sure that secondhand smoke does not harm your baby?
    The only way to effectively reduce your baby’s exposure to secondhand smoke is to completely eliminate smoking inside the house and car. Choose a designated area to smoke that is not in your house. Once you have chosen one, try to stick to it when you smoke—even in poor weather. It is just as important to prevent visitors from smoking in your home. Most will understand your concerns about your baby’s health. If your visitors want to smoke, kindly ask that they do so in a designated smoking area. Another idea is to meet them somewhere other than your house.
    It is also important to note that smoke and particles settle on hair and clothing. Holding young babies immediately after smoking increases the risks of secondhand smoke exposure, even after smoking outdoors. Although quitting is the ideal solution, changing clothing after smoking outdoors may help decrease exposure.
    The car is a very small, contained space. Smoking in the car can cause a high level of exposure for your baby. Again, open windows do not effectively reduce smoke exposure. In many cases it simply blows the smoke back to the baby. If you must smoke while in a car, then have a plan. For example, on long trips plan safe areas where you can stop to smoke outside of the car.
    Also make sure that any other areas where your child spends a lot of time are smoke-free. This may include day care centers, schools, and activity centers.
    If you smoke, quitting would benefit your entire family. Quitting can also help your baby if the mom smokes and breastfeeds. Babies can be exposed to smoke chemicals through breast milk. This can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in some babies.
    Knowing the ways that smoking can harm your baby may still not make it easy to quit. Like many habits it may take more than one try. There are several programs and tools to help you take the necessary steps. Many may be available for free or at a discounted rate. Talk with your doctor about options that may work best for you.
    Whether or not you quit smoking, it is very important not to expose your baby to secondhand smoke. Clear the air for your baby. Doing so will help your baby develop properly, significantly decrease the number of colds and infections, and avoid serious lung issues. A healthy baby also tends to be a happy baby, and that is good for everyone too.

    RESOURCES

    American Lung Association http://www.lungusa.org/

    Smoke Free http://www.smokefree.gov/

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Lung Association http://lung.ca/

    Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada http://www.smoke-free.ca/

    References

    Children and secondhand smoke exposure. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/Features/ChildrenAndSmoke/. Accessed: 4/14/2009.

    Environmental tobacco smoke. Children’s Environmental Health Centers website. http://es.epa.gov/ncer/childrenscenters/smoke.html. Updated April 1, 2009. Accessed May 18, 2009.

    The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General. United States Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/factsheets/factsheet4.html. Accessed April 14, 2009.

    Matt GET, Quintana PJE, et al. Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures. Tobacco Control. 2004; 13:29-37.

    Respiratory effects in children from exposure to secondhand smoke: a report of the Surgeon General. United States Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/report/chapter6.pdf. Accessed April 22, 2009.

    Smoke-free homes and cars program. United States Environmental Protection Agency website. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/smokefree/. Accessed April 14, 2009.

    Secondhand smoke factsheet. American Lung Association website. Available at: http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=35422. Accessed April 14, 2009.

    Second hand smoke and children. American Academy of otolaryngology website. Available at: http://www.entnet.org/HealthInformation/Second-Hand-Smoke-and-Children.cfm. Accessed 4/15/2009.

    Villamagna D. Smoking and breastfeeding. From: LEAVEN, Vol. 40 No. 4, August-September 2004. La Leche League International website. Available at: http://www.llli.org/llleaderweb/LV/LVAugSep04p75.html. Accessed April 22, 2009.

    5/21/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Yolton K, Xu Y, Khoury J, et al. Associations between secondhand smoke exposure and sleep patterns in children. Pediatrics. 2010;125(2):e261-268.

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