• Phobias

    (Specific Phobia; Simple Phobia)

    Definition

    A phobia is an intensely fearful response to something that would not normally cause fear. Phobias can interfere with different aspects of your life. Most phobias develop in childhood, though some develop during adulthood.
    There are many kinds of phobias, which can be grouped into these categories:
    • Agoraphobia —Fear of being trapped in places or situations where escape could be difficult or impossible
    • Social phobia —Fear of social situations and being judged or evaluated by others
    • Specific phobia—Fear of a specific object or a situation
    People may recognize a phobia as irrational, but do not have any control over their fear response or anxiety. If you think you have a phobia, talk to your doctor.

    Causes

    It is not clear what causes phobias. Factors that may affect the development of a phobia include:
    • Brain chemicals
    • Genetics
    • Traumatic experiences

    Risk Factors

    Phobias are more common in women than in men. They also tend to run in families. You may have an increased chance of developing a phobia if you have an immediate family member with a phobia.

    Symptoms

    Symptoms occur when you are exposed to the object or situation that you fear. Your fear may be more intense if you cannot easily get away from it.
    Psychological symptoms may include:
    • Having intense feelings of panic and extreme anxiety when exposed to the fear
    • Being afraid that you are losing control, going crazy, or dying
    • Having a feeling of unreality or being detached from your body
    • Being aware that the fear is abnormal, but not being able to control your reaction
    • Feeling the desire to flee from your fear or taking extreme steps to avoid it
    • Experiencing fear that interferes with your daily activities
    Physical symptoms may include:
    • Racing, pounding, or skipping heartbeat
    • Difficulty catching your breath
    • Chest pain or discomfort
    • Sweating
    • Lightheadedness, feeling faint
    • Nausea
    • Tingling or numbness in parts of the body
    • Hot or cold flashes
    • Shaking or trembling
    Physical Effects of Anxiety
    Physiological effects of anxiety
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and medical history. A physical and psychological exam will be done. You may be referred to a specialist.
    There are no tests that can diagnose phobias. The diagnosis will be made based on your symptoms.

    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment may include one or more of the following:

    Therapy

    Therapy will be based on your individual needs. It may be done in combination with other treatment methods. Some therapy options include:
    • Exposure therapy—confront your fear in a planned and controlled way with a therapist. It may begin with thinking about the fear and slowly progress to being exposed to it. You may also learn relaxation techniques. These help to reduce panic and anxiety.
    • Cognitive-behavioral therapy—work with your therapist to learn strategies to cope with your fear. You learn to change your beliefs and thoughts surrounding the fear and how it affects your life.
    You may also benefit from joining a support group.

    Medication

    Your doctor may recommend medication to reduce panic and anxiety attacks. Medications may include:
    • Antidepressant
    • Anti-anxiety medication

    Prevention

    There is no way to prevent phobias from developing. You can reduce the impact a phobia has on your life by getting help if you need it.

    RESOURCES

    American Psychiatric Association http://www.psychiatry.org

    Anxiety and Depression Association of America http://www.adaa.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Anxiety Disorders Association of Canada http://www.anxietycanada.ca

    Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org

    References

    Phobias. American Psychiatric Association website. Available at: http://www.psychiatry.org/phobias. Accessed March 6, 2013.

    Phobias. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/go/phobias. Accessed March 6, 2013.

    Phobias and fears. Help Guide website. Available at: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/phobia%5Fsymptoms%5Ftypes%5Ftreatment.htm. Updated February 2013. Accessed March 6, 2013.

    Specific phobia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated Novembe 9, 2012. Accessed March 6, 2013.

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