• Alternative Therapies to Quit Smoking

    IMAGE Maybe you have tried the usual methods to quit smoking, like patches, gums, and medicines, but have still not kicked the habit. A less traditional approach may be right for you. Alternative methods, like hypnosis, acupuncture, and even yoga have been studied for their effectiveness.

    Quitting With Hypnosis

    You may have heard about hypnosis to help you quit smoking. Hypnosis helps you get into a deeply relaxed state where you are open to suggestions. Hypnosis for smoking cessation may include suggestions that can:
    • Increase your negative feelings toward cigarettes
    • Weaken your desire to smoke
    • Strengthen your desire to quit
    Drifting away in a relaxed state while you are hypnotized to quit smoking may sound like the perfect way to kick the habit, but it may not be that easy. There have been several studies to determine if hypnosis really can help you quit. Unfortunately, nothing conclusive has been found. Reviews of randomized trials have shown mixed results.
    However, that does not mean it will be ineffective for you. Hypnotherapy has helped some people quit in observational studies. How well hypnotherapy works is highly dependent on you. So if you are highly motivated to quit and think hypnotherapy sounds like the right choice, try it.

    Quitting With Acupuncture

    Acupuncture is believed to work by triggering your body to release endorphins (natural pain relievers) that allow you to relax. Acupuncture done on the ear has been widely used for smoking cessation.
    Studies with acupuncture have shown some positive results. In one review of studies, acupuncture helped poeple remain smoke free compared to sham acupuncture for up to six weeks, but not for longer. Another systematic review showed better success, with people quitting for up to one year by using acupuncture compared to sham acupuncture. Unfortunately it does not appear that acupuncture is any better than nicotine replacement therapy.
    Other studies have shown that acupuncture could increase the effectiveness of smoking cessation education. Acupuncture combined with education was twice as effective as sham acupuncture combined with education and four times more effective than acupuncture alone in one study.
    Acupuncture may be one piece of a larger effort that helps you quit. If you find it does not work the way you want it to, move on to something else.

    Quitting With Exercise

    One reason smokers often cite for not wanting to give up smoking is concern that they will gain weight. Gaining a few pounds after quitting is common, but a regular exercise routine can help you to feel better, stay motivated, and avoid weight gain. Exercise can even help you quit by reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cravings. One study has shown that an exercise program doubles the likelihood that you will still be smoke-free after 12 months.
    Yoga is of particular interest as a quit method. Studies have shown that making yoga part of a regular exercise routine improves weight control and reduces stress. Yoga is made up of a few different elements, including regular breathing, asanas (yoga positions), and meditation. These can improve mood and promote relaxation—both of which have been linked to successfully quitting smoking. Yoga can be a great lifelong practice that will reinforce your smoke-free lifestyle.

    Quitting With Herbs

    If nicotine replacement gums and other medicines are not appealing to you, you might be thinking about using herbal supplements to curb your cravings. These herbs have been studied for their effectiveness in smoking cessation, though none shows much promise:
    Lobelia is an herb that has been widely promoted. Some research has shown that it may have effects on the nervous system that make it helpful for treating addiction.

    Other Ways to Quit

    Other ways to quit include:
    • Participating in contests: Contests with monetary prizes and other incentives may be effective for the short-term, but they have not been shown to have lasting effects.
    • Cutting back before quitting: Gradually reducing the amount you smoke may not be any more effective than quitting all at once (“cold turkey”).
    • Having transcranial stimulation: This therapy uses magnetic fields to stimulate nerves in the brain. While it is usually used to treat depression, it has been used to reduce cigarette cravings. Studies have had mixed results as to whether it is effective.
    Whether you quit cold turkey, wear a patch, or visit your acupuncturist for help, quitting smoking is a great decision. After all, each cigarette you smoke takes 11 minutes off your life. So continue to find ways to stop smoking and keep the clock ticking. Do not give up!

    RESOURCES

    American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org/

    American Lung Association http://www.lungusa.org/

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Lung Association http://www.lung.ca/

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/

    References

    Abbot NC, Stead LF, White AR, Barnes J. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001008.

    Amiaz R, Levy D, Vainiger D, et al. Repeated high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cigarette craving and consumption. Addiction. 2009;104(4):653-660.

    Bier ID, Wilson J, Studt P, et al. Auricular acupuncture, education, and smoking cessation: a randomized, sham-controlled trial. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1642-1647

    Cahill K, Perera R. Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(4):CD004307

    Cigarette addiction. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/biomedical-libraries/natural-alternative-treatments. Updated March 2011. Accessed June 21, 2011.

    How to quit smoking: a guide to quitting and kicking the habit for good. Helpguide.org website. Available at: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/quit%5Fsmoking%5Fcessation.htm. Updated November 2010. Accessed June 21, 2011.

    Lindson N, Aveyard P, Hughes JR. Reduction versus abrupt cessation in smokers who want to quit. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(3):CD008033.

    Shaw M, Mitchell R, Dorling D. Time for a smoke? One cigarette reduces your life by 11 minutes. BMJ. 2000;320(7226):53.

    Spiegel D, Frischholz EJ, Fleiss JL, Spiegel H. Predictors of smoking abstinence following a single-session restructuring intervention with self-hypnosis. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(7):1090-1097.

    Tobacco use disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Updated May 2011. Accessed June 21, 2011.

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation/MY00185. Updated May 2011. Accessed June 21, 2011.

    Ussher MH, Taylor A, Faulkner G. Exercise interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(4): CD002295.

    White AR, Rampes H, Liu JP, et al. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD000009.

    2/1/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Tahiri M, Mottillo S, Joseph L, et al. Alternative smoking cessation aids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2012;125(6):576-584.

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