883939 Health Library | Health and Wellness | Wellmont Health System
  • Wernicke Encephalopathy


    Wernicke encephalopathy is a brain disorder. It can lead to a variety of symptoms such as confusion, lack of muscle coordination, and eye movement difficulties.
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


    Wernicke encephalopathy is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. The deficiency may be caused by poor nutrition, problems absorbing vitamins, or both.
    Vitamin B deficiency is common in those with alcoholism. Excessive intake of alcohol is associated with poor diets and damage to the intestines that make it difficult to absorb vitamins. However, not everyone with alcoholism develops Wernicke encephalopathy. A combination of genes and diet may play a role.

    Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your risk of Wernicke encephalopathy include:
    • Alcoholism
    • Poor nutrition or fasting
    • A diet rich in carbohydrates
    • Cancer and chemotherapy treatments
    • Gastrointestinal disorders and surgical procedures
    • Severe vomiting
    • Systemic diseases such as AIDS, dialysis and renal diseases, infections, and thyroid disease
    • Eating disorders
    • Certain medications


    Symptoms may include:
    • Mental status changes, including confusion, poor concentration, lack of emotion, and memory loss
    • Vision problems
    • Poor coordination
    • Difficulty walking and sitting
    • Nausea and vomiting


    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The diagnosis will be made if you have the typical findings.
    Your blood will be tested for a thiamine level.


    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:
    • Thiamin supplements—to treat the thiamine deficiency that is causing your Wernicke encephalopathy.
    • Dietary changes—you will need to drink plenty of water. You may also be referred to a dietitian to help with meal planning, especially if your diet is high in carbohydrates.
    If Wernicke encephalopathy is associated with alcoholism or an eating disorder, you may be referred to a rehabilitation facility.


    To help reduce your chance of getting Wernicke encephalopathy, take these steps:
    • Ensure that you are getting enough thiamine in your diet.
      • Daily goals are 1.1 mg a day for women and 1.2 mg a day for men.
      • Foods that are rich in thiamine include lentils, peas, fortified breakfast cereal, pecans, spinach, oranges, milk, and eggs.
    • Limit your alcohol intake to a moderate level.
      • Moderate is two or fewer drinks per day for men and one or fewer drinks per day for women.
      • If you have a drinking problem, talk to your doctor right away about treatment options.


    Alzheimer’s Society http://www.alzheimers.org

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov


    Alzheimer Society Canada http://www.alzheimer.ca

    Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca


    Kaineg B, Hudgins M, et al. Wernicke’s encephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:e18. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm040862. Accessed December 18, 2013.

    Wernicke encephalopathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 14, 2013. Accessed December 18, 2013.

    Wernicke’s encephalopathy. University of Virginia School of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.medicine.virginia.edu/clinical/departments/medicine/divisions/digestive-health/nutrition-support-team/nutrition-articles/ThomsonArticle.pdf. Accessed December 18, 2013.

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Patient UK website. Available at: http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/Wernicke-Korsakoff-Syndrome.htm. Updated April 20, 2011. Accessed December 18, 2013.

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Radiopaedia website. Available at: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome. Accessed December 18, 2013.

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/wernicke%5Fkorsakoff/wernicke-korsakoff.htm. Updated February 14, 2007. Accessed December 18, 2013.

    What is Korsakoff’s syndrome. Alzheimer’s Society website. Available at: http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/documents%5Finfo.php?documentID=98. Updated May 2012. Accessed December 18, 2013.

    Revision Information

  • Join WellZones today.

    Make a Change For LifeLearn more

    Wellmont LiveWell is creating a new tradition of wellness in the mountains by providing individuals with tools and encouragement to live healthier lifestyles.

  • HeartSHAPE Spotlight

    At risk for a heart attack? Learn more

    Fight heart disease early and prevent heart attacks with HeartSHAPE® - a painless, non-invasive test that takes pictures of your heart to scan for early-stage coronary disease.

  • Calories and Energy Needs

    Calorie NeedsLearn more

    How many calories do you need to eat each day to maintain your weight and fuel your physical activity? Enter a few of your stats into this calculator to find out.

  • Ideal Body Weight

    Ideal Body WeightLearn more

    Using body mass index as a reference, this calculator determines your ideal body weight range. All you need to do is enter your height.

  • Body Mass Index

    Body Mass IndexLearn more

    This tool considers your height and weight to assess your weight status.

  • Can we help answer your questions?

    Wellmont Nurse Connection is your resource for valuable health information any time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Speak to a Nurse any time, day or night, at (423) 723-6877 or toll-free at 1-877-230-NURSE.