• Amnesia

    (Memory Loss)

    Definition

    Amnesia is the inability to remember information or events. It may be temporary or permanent.

    Causes

    Memory is created by complicated interactions within several parts of the brain. Most memory loss or the inability to make new memories is caused by damage to the brain. It may be caused by trauma, an illness like a brain infection, stroke, or some medications.
    Sometimes the cause is not known, especially with transient global amnesia.
    Rarely, a psychological trauma or shock can cause a type of amnesia called dissociative amnesia. This is most often short-term amnesia.

    Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase your risk of amnesia include:
    • Head and brain injuries, such as from a car accident or contact sport
    • Brain damage from conditions such as:
      • Alcohol use disorder
      • Stroke
      • Severe illness affecting the brain, such as encephalitis
      • Illegal drug use, such as heroin
      Brain damage complications from procedures, such as:
    • Dementia or Alzheimer's disease
    • Recent physical or emotional pain or trauma
    • Taking certain medications, such as anesthesia medications
    • Metabolic changes, such as low blood sugar or hypoxia
    • Migraine auras
    • Seizures
    Areas of the Brain Affected by Dementia
    IMAGE
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Symptoms

    Symptoms may include:
    • Inability to remember past information (retrograde amnesia) and/or new information (anterograde amnesia)
    • Confusion
    • Disorientation
    Amnesia generally does not affect general intelligence, personality, or self-identity. In other words, people with amnesia remember who they are.

    Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. The doctor will ask specific questions about memory loss and when it started. Family members may also be interviewed in order to gather information.
    To help determine a cause the doctor may do the following tests:
    • A physical and neurological exam
    • Blood tests to look for chemical imbalances or infections
    • Images of the brain may be taken to look for damaged structures. Images may be taken with:
    • Electroencephalogram—to test the brain’s electrical activity

    Treatment

    Treatment of temporary amnesia will focus on treating the cause. This may include psychological treatment for dissociative amnesia. Some amnesia may only last a few days and will simply require observation until the amnesia has passed.
    Long-term amnesia will require occupational therapy and new skills to help manage daily activities. Occupational therapy can help with skills and use memory training to better manage memory loss. Technological tools, notebooks, or reminders like photos may also help manage memory gaps.
    Memory loss can be difficult for the individual, family, and friends. A therapist or support group may help you and loved ones to adjust.

    Prevention

    There are no current guidelines to prevent amnesia.

    RESOURCES

    American Academy of Neurology https://www.aan.com

    Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation http://www.cnsfederation.org

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

    References

    Amnesia. Better Health Channel website. Available at: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/amnesia. Updated August 2014. Accessed March 8, 2016.

    Amnesia treatment. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amnesia/basics/treatment/con-20033182. Updated September 4, 2014. Accessed March 8, 2016.

    Memory loss (amnesia). NHS Choices website. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/memory-loss/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Updated January 12, 2015. Accessed March 8, 2016.

    Transient global amnesia. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115849/Transient-global-amnesia. Updated April 28, 2014. Accessed February 9, 2016.

    Treating amnesia. American Academy of Neurology website. Available at: http://patients.aan.com/resources/neurologynow/?event=home.showArticle&id=ovid.com:/bib/ovftdb/01222928-200804040-00020. Accessed March 8, 2016.

    Revision Information

    • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review BoardJames Cornell, MD
    • Review Date: 03/2017
    • Update Date: 03/08/2016
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