• Dyslexia

    (Specific Reading Disability)

    Definition

    Dyslexia is a learning disability that can hinder a person’s ability to read, write, and spell. It is a common learning disability in children and lasts throughout life. The severity of dyslexia can vary from mild to severe.

    Causes

    The causes of dyslexia are neurobiological (having to do with the way the brain is formed and how it functions) and genetic (passed down through families). Dyslexia may also occur due to other conditions, such as stroke .
    Language Center of the Brain
    Intelligence location in brain
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Risk Factors

    Having a family member with dyslexia.

    Symptoms

      Dyslexia may present as difficulty in the following areas
      • Learning to speak
      • Reading and writing at grade level
      • Organizing written and spoken language
      • Learning letters and their sounds
      • Learning number facts
      • Spelling
      • Learning a foreign language
      • Correctly doing math problems

    Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about you or your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done (including hearing and vision tests). You may then be referred to an expert in learning disabilities, such as a school psychologist, learning specialist, or neurologist (doctor who specializes in the nervous system) for additional testing.
    Your specialist may need additional tests. These may include:
    • Cognitive processing tests (measure of thinking ability)
    • IQ test (measure of intellectual functioning)
    • Tests to measure speaking, reading, spelling, and writing skills

    Treatment

    Most people with dyslexia need help from a teacher, tutor, or other trained professional. Talk with the doctor and learning specialist about the best treatment plan for you or your child. Treatment options include:

    Remediation

    Remediation is a way of teaching that helps people with dyslexia to learn language skills. It uses the following concepts:
    • Teach small amounts of information at a time
    • Teach the same concepts many times (“over-teaching”)
    • Use all the senses—hearing, vision, voice, and touch—to enhance learning (multisensory reinforcement)

    Compensatory Strategies

    Compensatory strategies are ways to work-around the effects of dyslexia. They include:
    • Audio taping classroom lessons, homework assignments, and texts
    • Using flashcards
    • Sitting in the front of the classroom
    • Using a computer with spelling and grammar checks
    • Receiving more time to complete homework or tests

    Prevention

    There is little that can be done to prevent dyslexia, especially if it runs in your family. However, early identification and treatment can reduce its effects. The sooner children with dyslexia get special education services, the fewer problems they will have learning to read and write at grade level. Under US federal law, free testing and special education services are available for children in the public school system.

    RESOURCES

    International Dyslexia Association http://www.interdys.org/

    National Center for Learning Disabilities http://www.ld.org/

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Dyslexia Association http://www.dyslexiaassociation.ca/

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

    References

    Dyslexia. National Center for Learning Disabilities website. Available at:http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyslexia . Accessed January 2, 2013.

    Dyslexia. KidsHealth.org website. Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/health%5Fproblems/learning%5Fproblem/dyslexia.html . Updated July 2012. Accessed January 2, 2013.

    Dyslexia basics. International Dyslexia Association website. Available at: http://www.interdys.org/ewebeditpro5/upload/DyslexiaBasicsREVMay2012.pdf . Accessed January 2, 2013.

    Frequently asked questions about dyslexia. International Dyslexia Association website. Available at: http://www.interdys.org/FAQ.htm . Accessed January 2, 2013.

    Kids with dyslexia. KidsHealth.org website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/learning/dyslexia.html . Updated July 2012. Accessed January 2, 2013.

    Understanding dyslexia. KidsHealth.org website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/teen/school%5Fjobs/school/dyslexia.html . Updated July 2012. Accessed January 2, 2013.

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