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  • Hepatic Encephalopathy

    (Encephalopathy, Hepatic; Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy; Encephalopathy, Portal-Systemic)

    Definition

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a problem with the brain that is caused by liver disease. The brain problem may be temporary or permanent. People with a liver disease called cirrhosis are most commonly affected.
    Oxygen and Blood Flow to the Brain
    oxygen brain lungs
    If the liver is not working properly, toxins can build up in the blood. The toxic blood travels to the brain, affecting the brain's ability to function.
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Causes

    A healthy liver filters out harmful items in the blood like toxins. A liver with disease can no longer filter these toxins. Certain toxins, like ammonia, build up in the blood. The blood then reaches the brain with the toxins. The toxins affect the brain’s ability to work properly.

    Risk Factors

    These factors increase your chance of developing metabolic encephalopathy:
    • Certain conditions that affect the levels of fluids and electrolytes (such as hyponatremia, hyperkalemia)
    • Kidney failure
    • Infections
    • Gastrointestinal bleeding
    • Certain medicines (such as sedatives, anti-epileptics)
    • Constipation
    • Cirrhosis
    • Hepatitis (infectious or autoimmune)
    Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors.

    Symptoms

    In the early stages, you may not notice any symptoms. As the condition progresses, symptoms may include:
    • Changes in behavior and personality
    • Shortened attention span
    • Depression and anxiety
    • Insomnia
    • Fatigue
    • Forgetfulness
    • Disorientation
    • Slurred speech
    • Tremor (particularly a flapping tremor of the hands)
    • Asterixis (rapid momentary loss of tone in the muscles)
    • Confusion
    • Stupor or coma
    If you have liver problems and any of the above symptoms, call your doctor right away.
    These problems can develop quickly. They may resolve when the underlying condition is reversed but immediate treatment is needed.

    Diagnosis

    This condition is potentially very serious. It can quickly become an emergency. You may need to be hospitalized. Doctors will do an exam to assess the condition of your nervous system.
    To assess your liver and kidneys your doctor may order:
    • Liver function tests
    • Kidney function tests
    • Imaging tests of the liver (may be done)
    Your doctor may also order tests to assess your brain and nervous system such as:
    • Images of the brain with MRI scan or CT scan
    • EEG—looking at brain waves for evidence of encephalopathy and/or seizures.
    • Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)—looking for other causes of the encephalopathy

    Treatment

    Hospitalization and Emergency Care

    The initial treatment will focus on treating and trying to reverse the underlying problems. If possible, toxins in your blood will be removed or neutralized.

    Medications

    Medications may be used to:
    • Neutralize toxins
    • Treat the condition causing encephalopathy
    • Reduce recurrence

    Dietary Restrictions

    Your doctor may recommend changes in your diet. Tube feeding may be needed to supply nutrients, especially in the case of coma.

    Transplantation

    If this condition is due to liver failure, you may need a liver transplant.

    Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of getting this condition, take the following steps:
    • Get early treatment for liver problems.
    • If you have a disease (such as cirrhosis), see your doctor regularly.
    • Follow your doctor's instructions or product recommendations for any medication. Avoid overdosing.
    • Avoid being exposed to poisons or toxins.

    RESOURCES

    National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Liver Foundation http://www.liver.ca

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index%5Fe.html

    References

    Bernuau J. Acute liver failure: avoidance of deleterious co-factors and early specific medical therapy for the liver are better than late intensive care for the brain (review). J Hepatol. 2004;41:152-155.

    Butterworth RF. Role of circulating neurotoxins in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy: potential for improvement following their removal by liver assist devices. Liver Int. 2003;23(suppl 3):5-9. Review.

    Hepatic encephalopathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated August 12, 2012. Accessed September, 2012.

    Highleyman L. Hepatitis C. HCV Advocate website. Available at: http://www.hcvadvocate.org/hepatitis/hepC/hepatic%5Fencephalopathy.html. Published 2005. Accessed September, 2012.

    Juretschke L. Kernicterus: still a concern. Neonatal Netw. 2005;24:7-9.

    Lizardi-Cervera J, Almeda P, Guevara L, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy: a review. Ann Hepatol. 2003;2:122-130. Review.

    Metabolic encephalopathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated August 11, 2009. Accessed September, 2012.

    Siegal GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, Uhler MD. Metabolic encephalopathies. In: Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.

    Toftengi F, Larsen F. Management of patients with fulminant hepatic failure and brain edema. Metab Brain Dis. 2004;19:207-214.

    4/2/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: FDA approves new use of Xifaxan for patients with liver disease. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm206104.htm. Published March 24, 2010. Accessed April 2, 2010.

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