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  • Salmonellosis

    (Infection; Salmonella Enterica; Food Poisoning)

    Definition

    Salmonellosis is an infection with the bacteria salmonella . It is a rod-shaped bacteria that can live in a variety of conditions, including in water, soil, raw meats, raw poultry, eggs, animal feces, insects, and raw seafood.
    This condition can be serious in weakened populations, including the elderly and infants. In those cases, it should be treated by a doctor. Rarely, more serious complications can occur, such as endocarditis , bacteremia, and osteomyelitis ,.
    Endocarditis
    Bacterial endocarditis, aortic valve
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    Causes

    Salmonellosis is caused by ingestion of a strain of the bacteria, Salmonella . After the bacteria is ingested, within 6-48 hours Salmonella will pass through the stomach to the intestine where inflammation occurs and spreads. The main types of Salmonella include:
    • S. enteritidis
    • S. typhimurium
    • S. typhi

    Risk Factors

    Factors that increase your risk of getting salmonellosis include:
    • Eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, fish, or seafood
    • Eating unpasteurized dairy products
    • Eating other contaminated foods
    • Drinking contaminated water
    • Handling reptiles, especially turtles
    • Having a compromised immune system, such as in:
      • Elderly persons
      • Infants
      • People with HIV/AIDS
      • People with low stomach acidity (eg, those who take medicine that reduces stomach acid)

    Symptoms

    If you have any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to salmonellosis. These symptoms may be caused by other, less serious health conditions.
    • Nausea
    • Diarrhea
    • Abdominal cramps
    • Fever
    • Vomiting
    • Headaches

    Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may test your stool or blood to confirm presence of Salmonella bacteria

    Treatment

    Over-the-counter medicines or oral rehydration solutions may be used to treat the symptoms of salmonellosis. The symptoms will usually improve on their own within 2-5 days. If symptoms are severe, talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
    • Rehydration therapy—With diarrhea and vomiting, oral or IV (given through a vein) fluid replacement is needed. Electrolytes may also be added to the solution.
    • Acetaminophen or ibuprofen —Over-the-counter pain relievers may be used to reduce fever or treat headaches and other pain.
    • Antibiotics—These are required in severe cases. Antibiotic use in non-severe cases does not improve a person's outcome. It may cause the disease to last longer.

    Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of getting salmonellosis, take the following steps:
    • Frequently wash hands and surfaces.
    • Wash hands and cutting boards with hot soapy water before and after handling raw foods.
    • Wash hands and utensils thoroughly between handling raw meats, fish, or poultry.
    • Do not use the same cutting boards for raw meats and raw vegetables.
    • Cook all foods to appropriate temperatures.
    • Place foods in the refrigerator promptly.
    • Wash hands after handling reptiles.
    • Certain medicines, like those to reduce stomach acid, may increase your risk for salmonellosis. Talk to your doctor about this risk.

    RESOURCES

    Fight BAC!Partnership for Food Safety Education http://www.fightbac.org/

    FoodSafety.gov http://www.foodsafety.gov/

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education http://www.canfightbac.org/cpcfse/en/about/

    Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

    References

    Benenson A. Salmonellosis . Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. American Public Health Association . 1996: 410-414.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Use of a self-assessment questionnaire for food safety education in the home kitchen—Los Angeles County, California, 2006-2008. MMWR. 2010;59(34):1098-101.

    Edwards BH. Salmonella and shigella species. Clin Lab Med . 1999; 19(3):469-487.

    Heymann D. Salmonellosis. In: American Public Health Association. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 2004;469-473.

    Koningstein M, Simonsen J, Helms M, Molbak K. The interaction between prior antimicrobial drug exposure and resistance in human Salmonella infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65(8):1819-1825.

    Pegues DA, Ohl ME, Miller SI. Salmonella species, including Salmonella typhi. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases . 6th ed. 2005;2:2636-2654.

    Salmonellosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/salmonellosis/ . Updated November 16, 2009. Accessed January 7, 2013.

    Revision Information

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