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  • Narcotic Abuse

    Definition

    Narcotic abuse is a serious, but treatable disorder. When the problem is not treated, people who abuse narcotics usually suffer significant mental and physical problems. The sooner treatment begins, the more favorable the outcome. If you suspect you have a problem with narcotic abuse, contact your doctor immediately.
    Major Organ Systems
    IMAGE
    All of the organ systems above can be significantly damaged with narcotic abuse.
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    Causes

    Narcotic abuse may begin with recreational (illegal) drug use, or it may begin when a patient takes a prescription painkiller too often or for too long a period. As the body builds up a tolerance for the drug, the user feels he or she needs more of the drug, and becomes dependent on it, both physically and psychologically.

    Risk Factors

    These factors increase your chance of developing narcotic abuse. Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors:
    • Experimented with illegal street drugs, particularly any form of heroin or cocaine
    • Had an addiction to alcohol or another substance
    • Taken someone else’s prescription narcotic for pain or to see how it made you feel
    • Taken a prescription narcotic for a condition that has since improved, but you still feel you “need” the drug
    Talk to your doctor if you have any of these risk factors. Additionally, some personality traits and lifestyles can increase your tendency to abuse narcotics. These may include depression and low self-esteem, associating with other drug users, and experiencing high amounts of stress or chronic pain over an extended period.

    Symptoms

    • Craving for the drug
    • Panic when drug supplies run out
    • “Doctor shopping” to increase drug supplies
    • Need to take the drug to feel normal
    • Use of the drug as a means to deal with stress, irritability, or unhappiness

    Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. In some cases, your doctor may give you an injection of the drug naloxone hydrochloride. By judging your body’s reaction, your doctor can determine if you have over-used or become dependent on narcotics.

    Treatment

    Because narcotic overdoses can cause trouble breathing and other life-threatening medical conditions, severe narcotic abuse often requires emergency treatment. Most non-emergency treatments also require some hospitalization to manage and monitor narcotic withdrawal symptoms.
    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

    Hospitalization to Overcome Initial Dependency

    There are many ways of withdrawing from narcotics. Doctors may prescribe medications to reduce withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, a substitute narcotic, such as methadone, may be used.

    Withdrawal Medications

    Depending on the severity and length of your narcotic abuse, after the initial hospital treatment, your doctor might prescribe medicines to lessen the body’s feeling that it “needs” narcotics. In some cases, maintenance treatment with long-acting narcotics, such as methadone, may be used.

    Support Groups

    Many support groups exist for people who abuse narcotics. These groups operate much like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and similar organizations. Support groups typically hold small, informal meetings of people who have narcotic abuse problems and people who have successfully overcome narcotic abuse. Support groups provide behavioral counseling and recommend lifestyle changes to help you overcome narcotic abuse and avoid becoming dependent on narcotics again.

    Behavioral Therapy

    Behavioral therapy for individuals, couples, and families has been used to treat narcotic abuse for more than 30 years. In individual behavioral therapy, a therapist, usually a psychologist, talks directly with the narcotic abuser to help the person change the habits and thought processes that led to the use of narcotics. In family and couples therapy, a counselor or therapist speaks with the narcotic abuser and those close to him or her to overcome the problem of narcotic abuse as it affects all of their relationships.
    If you are diagnosed as abusing narcotics, follow your doctor's instructions .
    If you are diagnosed as abusing narcotics, follow your doctor's instructions .

    Prevention

    To help reduce your chances of having a problem with narcotic abuse, take the following steps:
    • When taking prescription medications, follow your doctor’s directions exactly.
    • Do not take medications prescribed for anyone else.
    • Avoid all illegal drugs and people who use them.
    • Be alert to changes in your behavior or personality, such as depression, that may trigger you to begin using drugs.

    RESOURCES

    Narcotics Anonymous http://www.na.org/

    National Institute on Drug Abuse http://www.drugabuse.gov/

    Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services AdministrationUnited States Department of Health and Human Services http://www.samhsa.gov/index.aspx

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Narcotics Anonymous http://www.torontona.org/

    Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling Association of Nova Scotia http://nadaca.ca/

    References

    Alexander B, Pharm.D, BCPP. Management of Opiate Withdrawal, Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar. Virtual Hospital website of The University of Iowa, 1996-2005. Available at: http://www.vh.org/adult/provider/psychiatry/CPS/34.html. Accessed . September 29, 2005.

    Bykov SA. Narcotic abuse among young people as an indicator of dysadaptation. Russian Education and Society . 2001; 43:46-57.

    Drug addiction treatment medications. NIDA InfoFacts. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/infofacts/treatmed.html . Accessed January 17, 2008.

    Fals-Steward W, O’Farrell T, Birchler G. Behavioral couples therapy for substance abuse: rationale, methods, and findings. Science & Practice Perspectives . August 2004. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/Perspectives/vol2no2/04Perspectives-Behavioral.pdf . Accessed January 17, 2008.

    Hannesdottir H, Tyrfingsson T, Piha J. Psychosocial functioning and psychiatric comorbidity among substance-abusing Icelandic adolescents. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry . 2001;55:43-48.

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