• Chemotherapy

    Definition

    Chemotherapy is medication(s) used to kill cancer cells. The medications are toxic to fast-growing cells like cancer cells.

    Reasons for Procedure

    Chemotherapy may be the main treatment or part of a treatment plan. It can be used to:
    • Cure certain cancers
    • Decrease the chance of cancer returning after it has been removed through surgery
    • Stop the growth of cancers that can not be removed
    • Reduce the size of tumors before surgery
    • Attack cancer that has spread to other parts of the body
    • Shrink tumors that are causing problems

    Side Effects

    Chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. All cancer cells are fast-growing but certain healthy cells are also fast-growing cells. Chemotherapy can damage these healthy cells which leads to side effects. The exact types of side effects will vary. They will depend on the type of chemotherapy treatment and which healthy cells are affected.
    Cells that line the mouth, stomach, and intestines are fast-growing cells. Chemotherapy can damage these cells and cause:
    Damage to blood cells can lead to:
    • Anemia—low red blood cell count
    • Weakened immune system with an increased risk of infections
    • Fatigue
    • Easy bruising and/or bleeding
    Cells at the root of hairs are also fast growing. Damage to these cells causes hair loss.
    Other areas that may be affected include:
    • Nerves—damage or irritation to the nerves may cause peripheral neuropathy, numbness and tingling sensation in the hands and/or feet
    • Kidney—chemotherapy drugs eventually pass through the kidneys can damage to the kidneys
    • Heart—certain chemotherapy drugs can cause damage to the heart muscle
    • Reproductive organ changes may cause:
    The medical team will work to find a chemotherapy plan that is most effective against the cancer with the fewest amount of side effects. Other treatments may also help better manage side effects.

    What to Expect

    Prior to Procedure

    Some medication may be needed before treatment such as:
    • Steroids—to decrease inflammation
    • Allergy medications, such as an antihistamine
    • Antiemetics to control nausea
    • Sedatives
    • Antibiotics—to decrease the risk of infections

    Description of the Procedure

    The medical team will talk to you about the best way to deliver the treatment. Chemotherapy drugs may be given by:
    • IV—needle is inserted into a vein in the arm and medication is slowly passed into the blood
    • Mouth—pills or liquids
    • Injection which may be:
      • Passed directly into a muscle
      • Placed just under the skin into fatty tissue
      • Intrathecal—injection into tissue that covers the spine and brain
      • Intra-arterial—injected into artery that leads right to cancer
      • Intraperitoneal—injected into area over abdomen
    • Topical—placed directly on the skin
    Chemotherapy Delivery Through the Cardiovascular System
    Chemotherapy
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    How Long Will It Take?

    The length of treatment will depend on the type of treatment, the number of medications, and the amount needed. A session may be taking a pill or an infusion over several hours. Some types of chemotherapy may be continuously given through a pump.

    Will It Hurt?

    The delivery of the chemotherapy will usually not cause pain. Side effects may start in the hours and days after treatment.

    Average Hospital Stay

    Most often, you can leave after the medication is delivered. Some chemotherapy treatments will require a stay in the hospital. This may be about 2-3 days.
    A hospital stay may be needed if there are certain complications, such as severe vomiting.

    Post-procedure Care

    At the Hospital
    Treatment after chemotherapy may include:
    • Injections of an immune-system or blood cell boosting drug
    • Other drugs, including steroids, allergy medications, sedatives, and antibiotics
    At Home
    Recovery time at home will depend on the type of treatment and your reaction to it. Some will need longer periods of rest than other and have greater impact on daily tasks.
    Follow up tests will be needed to make sure the treatment is working as expected. The tests will also help plan future treatments.

    Call Your Doctor

    Contact your doctor if you are having difficulty managing chemotherapy or you develop complications such as:
    • Signs of infection, including fever and chills
    • Sores in your mouth, throat, or lips
    • White patches in your mouth
    • Difficulty/pain with swallowing
    • Diarrhea or constipation
    • Vomiting that prevents you from holding down fluids
    • Blood in your vomit
    • Easy bruising
    • Nosebleeds, bleeding gums, new vaginal bleeding
    • Blood in your urine or stool
    • Burning or frequency of urination
    • Chest pain
    • Severe weakness
    • Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, or cough
    • Calf pain, swelling, or redness in the legs or feet
    • Abnormal vaginal discharge, itching, or odor
    • New pain or pain that you cannot control with the medications you were given
    • Numbness, tingling, or pain in your extremities
    • Joint pain, stiffness, rash, or other new symptoms
    • Redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or a pimple at the site of your IV
    • Headache, stiff neck
    • Hearing or vision changes
    • Ringing in your ears
    • Exposure to someone with an infectious illness, including chickenpox
    • Weight gain or loss of 10 pounds or more
    If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.

    RESOURCES

    American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org

    National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca

    Cancer Care Ontario https://www.cancercare.on.ca

    References

    Chemotherapy and you: Support for people with cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/chemo-and-you. Updated June 2011. Accessed November 22, 2016.

    Understanding chemotherapy. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/chemo-side-effects/understandingchemo. Accessed November 22, 2016.

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