American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.ca
Aortic valve replacement. Encyclopedia of Surgery website. Available at: http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/A-Ce/Aortic-Valve-Replacement.html. Accessed September 14, 2017.
How is heart valve disease treated? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hvd/treatment. Updated June 22, 2015. Accessed September 14, 2017.
Mitral valve replacement. Encyclopedia of Surgery website. Available at: http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/La-Pa/Mitral-Valve-Replacement.html. Accessed September 14, 2017.
Options for heart valve replacement. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/HeartValveProblemsandDisease/Options-for-Heart-Valve-Replacement%5FUCM%5F450816%5FArticle.jsp#.WbrjLrKGNxA. Updated September 21, 2016. Accessed September 14, 2017.
6/2/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T905141/Treatment-for-tobacco-use: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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