• Homocystinuria


    Homocystinuria is a disorder of metabolism. It causes low levels of a specific enzyme. These enzymes normally help to break down the amino acids methionine and homocysteine. This causes the buildup of these amino acids.


    The most common form of homocystinuria is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme cystathionine beta-synthase.
    Homocystinuria is a genetic disorder. Both parents must have the defective gene in order for the child to develop the condition. A number of genes have been identified such as CBS, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, and MMADHC.

    Risk Factors

    Homocystinuria is more common in New South Wales, Australia, and Ireland.
    If both parents carry the faulty gene, there is a:
    • 25% chance the child will be born with the disorder
    • 50% chance the child will be a carrier of the faulty gene


    The number and severity of symptoms vary. Symptoms may include:
    • Visual problems
    • Excessive bleeding
    • Lightheadedness
    • Flush across the cheeks, fair complexion
    • Seizures
    • Tall, thin build
    • Delays in growth
    • Long limbs
    • High-arched feet
    • Knock-knees
    • Abnormal formation of the rib cage
    • Protrusion of the chest over the sternum
    • Developmental delays
    • Learning disorders
    • Intellectual disability
    Blood Clots in the Heart
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
    Homocystinuria may have serious complications, such as the development of blood clots. This could lead to a stroke, heart attack, or severe high blood pressure.


    Early treatment is important. Many states require that newborns be screened for homocystinuria. The test usually looks for high levels of methionine. If the test is positive, blood or urine tests can be done to confirm the diagnosis. These tests can detect high levels of methionine, homocysteine, and other sulfur-containing amino acids. Tests to detect an enzyme deficiency may be done as well.
    Prenatal diagnosis of homocystinuria is available. It is done with samples taken during an amniocentesis or chorionic villi sample.
    To look for potential complications, the following tests may also be done:


    There is no specific cure for homocystinuria. Treatment is focused on managing the levels of methionine. It should begin as early as possible. Treatment may include medication and/or a special diet.


    Many people respond to high doses of vitamin B6. The supplement will be needed for the rest of your life. A normal dose of folic acid supplement is helpful. Other medications may also be occasionally needed.

    Special Diet

    A special diet may help people who don't respond to or don't respond fully to vitamin B6 treatment. Starting the diet early in life can help prevent intellectual disability and other complications. In general, the diet:
    • Restricts foods with methionine
    • Consists mainly of fruits and vegetables
    • Allows little, if any, meats, eggs, dairy products, breads, and pastas


    Genetic counseling is advised for people with a family history of homocystinuria. The counselor will help you determine the risk your child has of developing homocystinuria.


    Genetics Home Reference http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov

    National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. http://www.rarediseases.org


    Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders http://www.raredisorders.ca

    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca


    Homocystinuria. Genetics Home Reference website. Available at: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=homocystinuria. Updated July 2011. Accessed March 10, 2016.

    Homocystinuria. National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. website. Available at: http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/463/viewAbstract. Accessed March 10, 2016.

    Revision Information

    • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review BoardKari Kassir, MD
    • Review Date: 03/2017
    • Update Date: 05/30/2014
  • LiveWell personal health survey

    How healthy are you really? Find out – free.Learn more

    It's time to stop guessing. If you want to make some changes but just aren't sure how, the free personal health survey from LiveWell is a great place to start.

  • HeartSHAPE Spotlight

    At risk for a heart attack? Learn more

    Fight heart disease and prevent heart attacks. HeartSHAPE® is a painless, non-invasive test that checks pictures of your heart for early-stage coronary disease.

  • Calories and Energy Needs

    Calorie NeedsLearn more

    How many calories do you need to eat each day to maintain your weight and fuel your physical activity? Enter a few of your stats into this calculator to find out.

  • Ideal Body Weight

    Ideal Body WeightLearn more

    Using body mass index as a reference, this calculator determines your ideal body weight range. All you need to do is enter your height.

  • Body Mass Index

    Body Mass IndexLearn more

    This tool considers your height and weight to assess your weight status.

  • Can we help answer your questions?

    Wellmont Nurse Connection is your resource for valuable health information any time, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Speak to a Nurse any time, day or night, at (423) 723-6877 or toll-free at 1-877-230-NURSE.