• Kidney Biopsy

    (Biopsy, Kidney; Renal Biopsy; Biopsy, Renal)


    A kidney biopsy is the removal of a small piece of kidney tissue or cells. The tissue or cells are evaluated under a microscope to look for abnormalities.
    The Kidneys
    Kidney ureter
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Reasons for Procedure

    A kidney biopsy is done to diagnose a disease or medical condition.
    A kidney biopsy may be done if you have:
    • Blood in the urine
    • High levels of protein in the urine
    • Low kidney function
    • A growth on the kidney
    • Kidney infection
    • A cyst on the kidney
    After the tissue is examined, a diagnosis can be made and treatment can begin.
    If you had a kidney transplant, this procedure may be done to see if your new kidney is working properly.

    Possible Complications

    Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you have a kidney biopsy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
    • Bleeding
    • Infection
    • Pain
    Smoking may increase the risk of complications. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit.
    Be sure to discuss these risks with your doctor before the biopsy.

    What to Expect

    Prior to Procedure

      Before the biopsy, your doctor may order urine tests, blood tests, and x-rays of your kidneys.
      • You should ask your doctor when you can expect to know the biopsy results.
    • Arrange for a ride home after your biopsy.
    • Your doctor may ask you to fast or eat lightly before your biopsy.
    • Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to 1 week before the procedure.


    You will receive a local anesthetic to numb your skin. You may also receive a light sedative.

    Description of Procedure

    This procedure is usually done in an outpatient setting with no need for an overnight stay. Your skin on your back or abdomen may be cleaned. A local anesthetic will be injected into the area where the biopsy will be taken. Next, your kidney will be located using either ultrasound or x-ray. Then, long needles will be inserted to collect tissue samples. A special instrument may be used to insert the needles. During the collection, you may be asked to hold your breath. After the samples are collected, a bandage will be placed on your skin.

    How Long Will It Take?

    About an hour

    How Much Will It Hurt?

    The local anesthetic will block the pain during the biopsy. Afterwards, you may feel sore where the biopsy was taken. Ask your doctor which pain reliever is right for you.

    Post-procedure Care

    At the Care Center
    You will be monitored for a few hours after your biopsy. You will be asked to remain lying down to reduce the chance of bleeding. Your pulse and blood pressure will be monitored. Your biopsy samples will be sent to the laboratory for testing. You will be sent home when you are feeling well and the doctor feels that it is safe.
    At Home
    When you return home you may have to avoid lifting or exercise until the biopsy area is healed. Follow any instructions on cleaning the incision site to avoid infection.

    Call Your Doctor

    Contact your doctor if your recovery is not progressing as expected or you develop complications, such as:
    • Bloody urine 24 hours after biopsy or a lot of blood in the urine
    • Difficulty urinating
    • Signs of infection, including fever and chills
    • Lightheadedness
    • Pain that is worse at biopsy site
    • Pain that you cannot control with the medications that you were given
    • A constant urge to urinate
    • Pain or burning when you urinate
    • Redness or drainage at biopsy site
    If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.


    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases https://www.niddk.nih.gov

    National Kidney Foundation https://www.kidney.org


    Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

    The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://kidney.ca


    Heilbrun ME, Remer EM, Casalino DD, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria indeterminate renal mass. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015;12(4):333-341.

    How is kidney cancer diagnosed? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidneycancer/detailedguide/kidney-cancer-adult-diagnosis. Updated February 10, 2016. Accessed September 6, 2016.

    Kidney biopsy. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/diagnostic-tests/kidney-biopsy/Pages/kidney-biopsy.aspx. Updated November 2015. Accessed September 6, 2016.

    6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.

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