• Intra-Abdominal Abscess

    Definition

    An intra-abdominal abscess is a pocket of pus or infected fluid inside the abdomen.
    Abdominal Organs, Anterior View
    IMAGE
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

    Causes

    An abscess forms in response to an infection. White blood cells rush to infected areas to destroy the germs causing the infection. Dead germ cells, damaged white blood cells and damaged tissue collect, creating pus. The pus will continue to collect and create a pocket in the tissue as long as the infection is present.

    Risk Factors

    Factors that may increase the risk of intra-abdominal abscess may include:

    Symptoms

    Symptoms may include:
    • Abdominal pain
    • Fever
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Lack of appetite
    • Unintentional weight loss

    Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
    An infection may be suspected based on your symptoms. Some abscesses can be felt on examination. Blood tests may be done to look for signs of infection or signs of your body’s response to an infection.
    Images of internal structures may be taken to locate and assess an abscess. This may be done with:

    Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. The goal of treatment is to remove the fluid and pus from the abscess and treat the infection.
    Most abscesses will need to be drained. They may be done by:
    • Percutaneous drain—A small tube is placed through the skin and into the abscess. Pus can then drain out of the body. Imaging tests are often used to help guide the tube to the appropriate area. Occasionally a smaller abscess can be drained with just a needle and syringe.
    • Surgical drainage—Some abscesses may not be ideal for percutaneous draining, either because of location and risk of spreading the infection or the abscess has many parts and could not be drained with one tube. Surgery involves opening the area to remove infected tissue and fluid.
    Antibiotics may also be given to prevent the spread of the infection.
    Symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can make it hard to get proper hydration or nutrition. IV fluids or nutritional support may be provided until symptoms pass.

    Prevention

    There are no known ways to prevent an intra-abdominal abscess. Work with your doctor to manage any underlying conditions that may cause an intra-abdominal abscess.

    RESOURCES

    American College of Surgeons https://www.facs.org

    Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians https://www.familydoctor.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Health Canada https://www.canada.ca

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca

    References

    Intra-abdominal abscess. University of Rochester Medical Center website. Available at: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=134&ContentID=145. Accessed October 2, 2017.

    Intra-abdominal abscesses. Merck Manual Professional Manual website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/acute-abdomen-and-surgical-gastroenterology/intra-abdominal-abscesses. Updated January 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.

    Intra-abdominal sepsis and abscesses. Patient website. Available at: https://patient.info/doctor/intra-abdominal-sepsis-and-abscesses. Updated March 11, 2016. Accessed October 2, 2017.

    Schein M. Management of intra-abdominal abscesses. In: Holzheimer RG, Mannick JA, editors. Surgical treatment: Evidence-based and problem-oriented. Munich: Zuckschwerdt; 2001. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6937. Accessed October 2, 2017.

    Revision Information

    • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Daus Mahnke, MD
    • Update Date: 10/03/2016
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